AP Human Geography: Chapter 11-Review

Approximately 3/4 of the world’s industrial production is concentrates in 4 regions of the world. What are they?Eastern North America , Northwestern Europe, East Asia, Eastern Europe
Industrial Revolution began in…Great Britain or United Kingdom
Geographers recognize that connections are important to explain why a particular place is suitable for industry. 2 connections are what?Where the markets are and where the resources are.
Outside of Europe, North America, and East Asia, the next two largest producing countries are?India and Brazil
When did the Industrial Revolution began in?late 1700s
The Industrial Revolution can be explained by a gradual diffusion of 3 inventions. What are they?Social, economic, and political.
The cottage industry system involved manufacturing where?In the home
After the Northeast US, the second largest industrial region in the USA is what?South California
The main source of power for steam engines and blast ovens is produced from what?Coal
What was the most important transportation improvement in the 18th century?Canal
Western Europe’s principle industrial areas include what 3 areas?UK, Rhine-Ruhr, Mid-Rhine, Northern Italy
Today, the most significant industrial asset of the Western Great Lakes region is its what?Access to the nation’s transportation network.
In order to become a major industrial power, Japan had to overcome a problem of what?Distance from consumers.
Convergence regions are found primarily where in Europe?Central Europe (E and S where incomes lag)
The shift in steel production locations in the USA from the mid-nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth century stated in the NE towards the (blank) and now resides in (blank).Midwest, East and West coasts.
Alfred Weber put together a Least Cost Theory of Industry in 1909. According to Weber, there are two geographical costs to consider when deciding where to place an industry. What are they?Site and situation
What are two factors of situation?Bulk-gaining and bulk-reducing
What does bulk-reducing mean? Explain.The industry is working with huge raw materials like what is found in copper ore steel or mining. The product needs to be reduced to transport to a city. The industry factory must be placed near the raw materials. It is more cost effective that way.
What is a bulk-gaining industry?The industry’s raw materials are small and combined intro a larger product. Always located near large cities. The final product grows into a final product and is easier to transport because it’s assembled within the city. (newspaper, Pepsi, Coke, bread, car, airplane)
Copper concentration mill tends to locate near a copper mine because it’s a what?Bulk-reducing industry
Metal fabrication plants are an example of a bulk-gaining industry because why?Separate parts are combined to make more complex and massive products.
Situation costs are critical to a firm that wishes to what?Minimize transport costs
Site factors equal what 3 important considerations?Land, Labor, and capital
The U.S. steel industry moved westward in the nineteenth century primarily because of better access to what?Iron ore
Producers of automobiles select locations primarily because of access to what?Markets
The lowest-cost form of transporting goods very long distances is by what?Boat
A company which uses more than one mode of transport will often locate near what?Break-of-bulk points
Beer bottling is an example of a what?Bulk-gaining industry
Maquiladoras have an advantage of proximity to U.S. markets but are a bit too far for what?Just in time deliveries.
What is the definition of a maquiladora ?Factories built by U.S. companies near the U.S. border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
How do the Mexican people benefit by being a part of a Maquiladora?Higher wage job than normal Mexican employment. Bus ticket paid by plant. 2 meals at the plant.
How does the Mexico government benefit from Maquiladoras?Mexicans earn money and spend it in Mexico. Helps the Mexican economy. Mexico government is stable. Provides USA with tax breaks. Trade agreement like NAFTA between Mexico, U.S., and Canada.
Compared to other industries, aluminum manufacturers are more likely to locate near sources of what?Low-cost energy due to need for water- but also they need electricity.
What industry is more dependent on low-cost labor?Textiles
What is Fordist production?Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Henry Ford boasted that he could do what 2 things for people?He could could take people off the streets and put them to work with only a few minutes of training.
Central Europe offers an attractive combination of important site and situation factors, what are the two?Less skilled but cheaper labor than Western Europe.
Both Europe and USA have seen interregional shifts in manufacturing, but one difference is what?Europe government policies have encouraged relocation.
Steel production has declined during 1980-2008 most rapidly where? Where in 2013?USA, China
What western European country has experienced the most rapid manufacturing growth since the late 20th century?Spain
Maintaining control over all phases of a highly complex production process is known as what?Vertical integration
The U.S. government distinguishes between foreign and domestic cars in 3 ways what are they?Measure fuel efficiency, set tariffs, inform customers under the American Automobile Labeling Act.
What 2 location/situation factors influence industries to remain in the northeastern US and Northwest Europe?Skilled labor and rapid delivery to market.
What are the advantages of northern Industry executives setting up a low-skilled labor factory in the South USA? (Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, etc.)The South supports “open shops”. The South has many states that are considered Right-to-work states. This means a U.S. state has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment. Unions are not successful there. People are willing to work for the pay the Industry is willing to give. The industries are in rural areas and people are eager to find jobs. There are not huge cities nearby for the rural to fund a job.
What is the difference between an “open shop” and a “closed shop”?Closed shop ( a company and a union agree that everyone must join the union to work in the factory). Open shop (a company and a union many not negotiate a contact that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment). More difficult in the South to organize factory workers, collect, dues, and bargain with employers as a union’s purpose is to do just that. Right-to-work laws send a powerful message signal that anti-union attitudes would be tolerated, even actively supported.
What are the disadvantages for Southern people working in a low-skilled factory set up by a huge corporation from the Northern part of the USA?Executives know that they do not have to worry about labor unrest. They do not have to worry about unions. They know that Southerners will accept the pay they offer. Often the Executives only offer part-time work so they do not have to give out benefits. The Executives can pull out of a southern state any time they want. They can close a factory and leave the rural, Southern people without jobs. There is no loyalty to the South. The Executives’ home base is a Northern city and that is where their loyalty remains.
What kind of industry work is available in the South?Textiles, call-centers, tobacco products, furniture, access to oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, food processing, and aerospace product manufacturing.
MDCs are hesitant to lend out funds or capital for LDCs because why?Political unrest, economic problems, high debt
3 traditional production factors that vary among locations are what?Labor, Capital, Land
What parts are delivered often within minutes to the assembly plant?Just-in-time deliveries
What are the advantages of just-in-time deliveries to the manufacturing company?Reduces the money spent on inventory; reduces the size of the factory due to not having a mountain of inventory.
What are the advantages of just-in-time deliveries for the producers?Have less inventory to cushion against disruption in the arrival of needed parts; only 2 kinds of disruptions: labor unrest and “acts of God”.
What is the site factor that is changing dramatically in the 21st century?Labor
What does BRIC stand for?Brazil, Russia, India, and China = trade agreement with each other.
Two geographical costs a company faces are what?Situation and site factors.
What is an example of a product other than food that is highly perishable?Newspaper
Gulf Coast has become an industrial area for 2 products. What are they?Oil and natural gas.
Auto Alley in the US is found starting way in the north with what state?Michigan and countries down to Georgia.
Labor intensive jobs are measured as what whereas high-wage is measured in what?Percent vs Dollars
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory is called what?Situation factors.
What 2 reasons why the Industrial Revolution bypassed the South?Civil war, no infrastructure, lack of electricity, lack of roads
Just-in-time delivery can be disrupted in 2 ways. What are they?Labor unrest, acts of god
The highest manufacturer of refrigerators, stereos, and electronic equipment can be found where?Japan
What is the transfer of some types of jobs, esp. those requiring low-paid, less skilled works, from more developed to less developed countries?New international division of labor (2 parts to definition***)
What are positive factors of the New international division of labor?Economic interdependence/globalization; transportation/communication; outsourcing/off shoring; foreign management; trade agreements.
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to an independent supplier is called what?Outsourcing (single market supplier)
Textiles are dominant in what industrial sector of LDCs?India
Behind Europe and North America, industrial areas that are developing rapidly are in what 3 areas?East Asia, South Asia, and Latin America
What is an example of a single-market manufacturer?Car dials, seat parts: for motor vehicles
The Detroit 3 automakers purchase more than 1/4 of a;; pf a new vehicle parts from where?Mexico
Adoption by companies of flexible work hours is a part of what production?Post-Fordist
What is the city most important to the Rhine-Ruhr Valley?Rotterdam
In the 21st Century, where are factories located in the USA?Suburbs and rural areas
What is a footloose industry?Businesses whose locations are not tied to resources or not tied to transportation or not tied to consumer locations.
Ex) customer-service call centers, (unskilled labor) research and development centers (skilled labor) or corporate headquarters (highly skilled labor). Because they are not part of the production, they can be moved or closed down with in a short time, be moved to another site, or even eliminated.
What are the Detroit 3 Companies?Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors
What percentage of the value of any car that bears a company name (minus the cost of single market parts)?30%
What are the South and Eastern countries that are a part of the European union that need convergence industries to be set-up in their countries because of high debt?Spain, Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece
What are the 6 industries that were impacted by the Industrial Revolution?Iron, coal, transportation, textiles, chemicals, food processing.