AP Human Geography: Agriculture

Primary Economic Activityeconomic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment– such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary Economic ActicityEconomic activity involving the proccesing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products, the manufacturing sector
Tertiary Economic Activityeconomic activity associated with the provision fo services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs)
First Agricultural Revolution/Neolithicdating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication. More sedentary life during later part of Stone Age. Dictionary.com
Substinence Agriculturegrowing only enough to provide for you and your family’s needs.
Shifting CultivationA form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash-and-Burn Agriculturea farming technique used by the Mayans where they cut down trees and then burn them to use as fertilizer. Once the soil is worn out they move on to a new area and do it again
Second Agriculture RevolutionDovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agriculture Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce. Notes
von Thunen ModelA model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
Green Revolution/Thirdthe introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Genetically Modified Organismscrops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
Plantation AgricultureProduction system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.
Livestock RanchingAn extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
Mediterranean Agriculturean agricultural system practiced in the mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations.
AgribussinessCommercial agriculture business characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Carl SauerAmerican geography, wrote the article, “Recent Developments in Cultural Geography”, which considered how cultural landscapes are made up of “the forms superimposed on the physical landscape” Quizlet
Milkshedthe surrounding area of a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
Biotechnologythe exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, esp. the genetic manipulation of micro-organisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones etc.
Dr. Norman BorlaugFounder of the Green Revolution, increased wheat and maize yield. Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1970.
Cereal GrainA grass yielding grain for food
Rural Settlement Patterns (Dispersed)Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements
Rural Settlement Patters (Nucleated)A number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
Horticulturethe art or practice of garden cultivation and management
US Farm BillA statute that would regulate farm production and prices
Crop Rotationthe system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground, especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weeds, disease etc.
Cadastral SystemsA prevailing system that delineates property lines
TerracingMake sloping land into a number of level flat areas resembling a series of steps
IR36A rice variety developed by Gurdev Khush. The variety was one of many used in the Green Revolution, which replaced local strains and genetic diversity (google definitions)
Settlement PatternsLinear: settlement of buildings formed in a long line.
Round: settlement around a certain center or area
Clustered: a settlement where buildings are clustered around a particular point
Walled: settlement within a closed structure that divides and separates from the rest of the land. (google definition)
Extensive AgricultureSystem of crop cultivation using small amounts of labor and capital in relation to area of land being farmed. (Britannica)
Pastoral NomadismA form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals (textbook).
Intensive Subsistence AgricultureA form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yields from a parcel of land. (textbook)
OrganicsPlants grown without green technology (quizlet)
Mixed Crop and Livestock FarmingBoth animal and crops are farmed in the same area. (quizlet)
Dairy FarmingRaising cattle to create and sell dairy products. (quizlet)
Grain FarmingFarming of seed of cereal grasses. (quizlet)
TranshumanceThe seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures (quizlet)
Mediterranean Agriculturespecialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails (grapes, olives, figs, etc.) (quizlet)
Truck farmingthe production of one or more vegetable crops on a large scale for shipment to distant markets (dictionary)
Appellationa legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where a crops was grown ex. grapes for wine (google definitions)
Collective Farmsa farm or number of farms organized as a unit, worked by a community under the supervision of the state (dictionary)
Double croppingto grow two or more crops on the same land in the same season or at the same time (meriam webster)
Land rent curve (bid rent theory)geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district increases (dictionary)
Pesticidessubstances meant for attacking, seducing, destroying or mitigating any pest. (dictionary)