ANTH101 EXAM 1

Anthropology looks at the complete diversity of human life across space and time, and this reflects the field’s commitment to:thoroughness
Anthropologists who explore all aspects of human culture-from war and violence to love, sexuality, and child rearing-and look at the meanings that people from all over the world place on them are known as:cultural anthropologists.
What field of anthropology studies monkeys, apes, and other nonhuman primates?primatology
Who studies how language changes over time?historic linguists
In late nineteenth-century debates on American immigration, many scholars and government officials privileged immigrants from northern Europe over those from southern Europe, such as Italians and Greeks, because the officials felt these southern people were a separate and inferior biological race with primitive ways. This is an example of:ethnocentrism.
The author states that pollution, population growth, climate change, and overfishing are serious issues, and nature may not be able to adapt to:human activity.
The belief that one’s own culture or way of life is normal and natural is known as:ethnocentrism.
South Korea has developed amazingly, with huge corporations making vast amounts of money and giving everyone there a high standard of living, while the vast majority of people in the Central American nation of Guatemala are plagued by extreme poverty, violence, and poor living conditions. This is an example of:uneven development.
Global forces are expanding rapidly and moving into local communities everywhere. The author notes that many people in local communities respond with:active resistance.
The belief that one’s own culture or way of life is normal and natural, and viewing the different practices of other people as strange and unnatural, is calledethnocentrism.
Anthropologists seek to counter ethnocentrism by:objectively, accurately, and sensitively representing the diversity of human life and culture.
Commonplace norms, values, beliefs, practices, and institutions that cultivate the desire to acquire consumer goods to enhance one’s lifestyle constitute a culture of:consumerism.
Which of the following processes is intensifying the exchange and diffusion of people, ideas, and goods worldwide, creating more interaction and engagement among cultures?globalization
Which of the following statements is true?Cultures have always been influenced by the flow of people, ideas, and goods, whether through migration, trade, or invasion.
________is both a definition and a key theoretical framework for anthropologists attempting to understand humans and their interactions.Culture
Which of the following statements is true?Humans learn culture throughout their lives.
Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917) is credited with crafting the first definition of which of the following concepts utilized in anthropology?culture
Which of the following industries is key in arousing our desires for goods and services?advertising
Humans learn culture from people and cultural institutions that surround themover their entire lives.
A key group that the credit card industry in the United States explicitly targets iscollege students
Which of the following is a powerful enculturation tool that teaches us how to be “successful” in consumer culture?advertising
Franz Boas (1858-1942) rejected unilineal cultural evolution, advocating for which of the following approaches instead?historical particularism
Clifford Geertz (1926-2006), who urged anthropologists to explore culture primarily as a symbolic system, is a key figure in which of the following anthropological approaches?interpretivist
Which of the following is defined as the belief that one’s own culture or way of life is normal, natural, or even superior to other cultures?ethnocentrism
A global outlook that is emerging in response to increasing globalization and that involves linking cultural practices, norms, and values across great distances to even the most remote areas of the world is termed:cosmopolitanism.
Because she has been a community activist and advocate for her research subjects, and founded Organs Watch as a watchdog organization, Nancy Scheper-Hughes’ research could be considered a form of ________ ethnography.public
Ways of establishing an ethnographer’s ________ include discussing length of fieldwork, language skills, and the nature of his or her relationships with research subjects.authority
The process of ________ utilizes the wealth of anthropological studies to compare the activities, trends, and patterns of power across cultures.ethnology
________ anthropology is based on secondhand accounts of missionaries and
merchants.
Armchair
The research conducted by anthropologist ________ regarding the production and exchange of sugar was an important study of the impacts of colonialism and globalization at the local level.Sidney Mintz
Fieldwork is considered a ________ for students because it creates a common bond among professionals in the field.rite of passage
Ethnography written for government agencies and nongovernmental organizations that addresses problems in the community is known as ________ anthropology.public
In an effort to make their ethnographies more collaborative and participatory, anthropologists often
incorporative natives’ perspectives in a practice known as:
polyvocality
Sidney Mintz:studied the effects of colonialism in Puerto Rico.
One consequence of increased migration is that anthropologists conduct ________ ethnography, collecting data in two or more locations.multi-sited
An important change in the way that ethnography is written in the twenty-first century is that there is less emphasis on presenting native voices.False
In giving her perspectives on the process of doing fieldwork in a Brazilian shantytown, Nancy Scheper-Hughes’ account of Alto do Cruzeiro is an example ofreflexive ethnography.
In his study of everyday “Body Rituals among the Nacirema,” Horace Miner:makes the familiar seem very strange.
The author writes that the roots of cultural anthropology and ethnographic fieldwork lie in:colonial encounters.
Margaret Mead’s talent for blending fieldwork with dynamic writing about gender roles provided her with the authority and opportunity to become an important ________ anthropologistpublic
Digital natives areborn after the 1980s; this generation has spent their lives using devices like smartphones and laptops
The Summer Institute of Linguisticssends missionaries into the field to create written versions of indigenous languages with the goal of disseminating the Christen Bible in those languages.
Dialect is defined as:a nonstandard variation of a language that is particular to a specific region.
The system of human communication based on a set of symbols and signs with learned and shared meanings is called:language.
In 1996, the Oakland School District proposedsupporting Black English, or Ebonics, speakers as if they were learning Standard English as a second language in school.
As new speech communities have been formed through the digital activism of the Arab Spring, a new ________ that includes events, names, and ideas pertaining to social protest has also emergedlexicon
Based on what linguistic anthropologist David Harrison found in Asia, which of the following statements best describes how language shapes the idea of time in Tuva?While the future is seen as behind them, the past is seen as in front.
Some linguistic anthropologists find the work of the Summer Institute of Linguistics controversial because:their Christian perspective may ignore some aspects of local culture, such as song and art.
In part because the Hopi language has verb tenses that differ from those of English, Benjamin Whorf’s linguistic research suggested that the Hopi people of Arizona have:a worldview where past and present represent lived reality and the future is hypothetical.
To investigate the focal vocabulary of a language in a particular community, a linguistic anthropologist might:try to discover words that offer sophisticated ways to describe local cultural realities.
Based on evidence from Benjamin Whorf’s research with the Hopi, a Native American group in the southwestern United States, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that:thought is rooted in language.
The fact that 85 percent, or 5.5 billion people, lack meaningful access to a digital communication network reflects:the tendency of globalization to increase the effects of uneven development.
According to the text, studying the patterns and importance of sounds as spoken by a group of people helps linguistic anthropologists:understand the elements and rules of a particular language.
Compared to digital ________, people born before 1970 have more trouble navigating websites, wikis, blogs, and text messages.natives
Anthropologist Laura Bohannan discovered in her attempt to translate a classic text from English literature that:the meaning of the story became lost as the original meanings of the English words could not be easily translated.