chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and module quiz

Andrew Johnson was:
a. impeached by the Supreme Court.

b. impeached by the House, but not convicted by the Senate.

c. threatened with impeachment but never actually impeached.

d. impeached, then imprisoned.

e. impeached and immediately removed from office.

b. impeached by the House, but not convicted by the senate
Most scalawags were white southerners who had:
a. become educated.

b. owned slaves.

c. served in the Union army.

d. opposed secession.

e. changed their minds about race relations.

d. opposed secession
The South emerged from the Civil War with a strong, diversified economy.
t/f
false
In South Carolina, the fact that lower-class whites enjoyed unprecedented political power under Radical Republican rule:
a. generated unexpected support for Radical Reconstruction among southern white elites.

b. enabled the state legislature to reinstitute legal slavery.

c. helped keep corruption from becoming a problem in the state government.

d. led many former Confederate leaders to oppose the Radical state legislature.

e. resulted in a rebellion that overthrew the reconstructed South Carolina state government.

d. led many former Confederate leaders to oppose the Radical state legislature.
After the House of Representatives impeached President Johnson, the Senate failed to convict him by just one vote.
t/f
true
Despite winning the popular vote in 1876, Samuel Tilden lost the presidency.
t/f
true
President Johnson’s plan to restore the Union closely resembled Lincoln’s.
t/f
true
The main issue that caused the dispute between Congress and President Johnson was:
a. he House’s impeachment of Johnson.

b. a growing conflict of opinion over Reconstruction policy.

c. Johnson’s past service as a Confederate soldier.

d. Congress’s insistence that Johnson stole the presidency.

e. Johnson’s role in Lincoln’s assassination.

b. a growing conflict of opinion over Reconstruction policy
Democrats generally favored “sound” or “hard” monetary policies.
t/f
false
Southern efforts to re-create a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact?
a. Slavery became legal once more.

b. President Johnson was removed from office.

c. The Fourteenth Amendment was repealed.

d. Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.

e. The Democratic party ceased to function.

d. Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.
From the end of the Civil War to the turn of the century:
a.innovation in business remained stagnant.

b. fewer women and children worked.

c. farm production declined.

d. corporations grew in size and power.

e. average wages and earnings declined.

d. corporations grew in size and power.
Holding Companies:
a. are firms that control the stock of other companies.

b. were outlawed in New Jersey in 1888.

c. were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1868.

d. were firms where union membership was required.

e. allowed J. Pierpont Morgan to build a monopoly in the oil-shipping business

a. are firms that control the stock of other companies.
The Ladies’ Home Journal included all of the following sections EXCEPT:
a. religion

b. fiction

c. travel

d. sewing

e. cooking

c. travel
The sand-lot incident in San Francisco in 1877 led to attacks against Chinese immigrants.
t/f
true
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and:
a. rags-to-riches stories abounded.

b. the poor were getting poorer.

c. many other people were at least better off.

d. everyone was getting rich.

e. there were no disparities in the distribution of wealth.

c. many other people were at least better off.
All of the following statements are true of the Pinkertons EXCEPT:
a. they won every battle they were sent into.

b. they relied on Chinese labor to fill their ranks.

c. they busted unions.

d. they were a detective agency.

e. they were hired to end the Homestead strike.

b. they relied on Chinese labor to fill their ranks
Membership in the American Federation of Labor at first:
a. was primarily African American.

b. reflected the growing membership of agricultural workers.

c. grew slowly.

d. grew rapidly.

e. reflected the growing membership of the unskilled worker.

c. grew slowly
Westinghouse’s system of transmitting electricity over long distances lost the “battle of the currents.”
t/f
false
Why were mail cars connected to the Pullman cars during the Pullman strike?
a. to justify federal intervention to end the strike by allowing railroad executives to claim the strike interfered with the mail

b. to allow union leaders throughout the country to exchange correspondence during the strike

c. to enable the strikers to create as big a disruption as possible

d. to allow President Grover Cleveland to express his support for the union

e. to prevent anarchists from communicating with the strikers

a. to justify federal intervention to end the strike by allowing railroad executives to claim the strike interfered with the mail
The Knights of Labor declined for all the following reasons EXCEPT:
a. popular fears that the organization was too radical.

b. the Haymarket affair discredited the union.

c. their preoccupation with local politics.

d. its leadership was devoted more to reform than to the nuts and bolts of organization.

e. its leader Terrance Powderly died

e. its leader Terrance Powderly died
In 1877, President Rutherford Hayes addressed the American approach to dealing with Native Americans, saying:
a. “Indians must be removed from tribes in order to progress.”

b. “if we kill the bison, we control the Indians.”

c. “many, if not most of our Indian wars have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part.”

d. “the only good Indian is a dead one.”

e. “we must kill the Indian in order to save the man.”

c. many, if not most of our Indian wars have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part.
By the late nineteenth century, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indians believed:
a. a massive alliance of Indians offered one last chance to turn back American settlement.

b. the Americans offered a superior way of life.

c. his people should resist white settlement to their very last man, woman, and child.

d. the time had come to stop fighting and put a stop to his people’s needless deaths.

e. magic would save his people from defeat.

d. the time had come to stop fighting and put a stop to his people’s needless deaths.
The major champion of the New South gospel was:
a. Henry W. Grady.

b. J. L. M. Curry.

c. Edmund Ruffin.

d. John Ruffin Green.

e. C. Vann Woodward

a. Henry W. Grady
Six states were created from the western territories in the years 1889-1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because:
a. Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican.

b. if large mining firms had been forced to pay state taxes, they would have had to close down.

c. the lawlessness of many western towns discouraged Congress from admitting the territories as states.

d. the cattle ranchers lobbied for continued open range as regulated by the territorial legislatures.

e. polygamy, as practiced by the Mormons in the West, was unacceptable to Congress.

a. Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican.
The factor most responsible for making farming on the plains more difficult was its:
a. steep elevation.

b. wind storms.

c. lush forestation.

d. vastness

e. unforgiving environment and merciful weather

e. unforgiving environment and merciful weather
Congress passed the Homestead Act:
a. to encourage the railroads to build a transcontinental road out of the north.

b. because the big ranchers lobbied for it.

c. to encourage settlement of the western lands.

d. to place Indians on reservations.

e. to build militias in Indian country.

c. to encourage settlement of the western lands.
In the Battle at the Little Bighorn River in 1876:
a. Sioux and Cheyenne Indians won a large chunk of the Montana Territory, which they kept for fourteen years.

b. General George Custer’s troops defeated the Cherokee and Seminole Indians.

c. some 2,500 Indians annihilated a detachment of 210 soldiers.

d. Chief Red Cloud was captured and murdered.

e.Sitting Bull scouted for the United States against his own people.

c. some 2,500 Indians annihilated a detachment of 210 soldiers.
Redeemers were all of the following EXCEPT:
a. members of the Democratic party.

b. conservative.

c. white politicians.

d. pro-business.

e. members of the Republican party.

e. members of the Republican party
The first great cowtown was:
a. Fort Worth, Texas.

b. St. Louis, Missouri.

c. Abilene, Kansas.

d. Butte, Montana.

e. Denver, Colorado.

c. Abilene, Kansas
This export crop spurred growth in agriculture in the West during the late nineteenth century.
a. corn

b. cotton

c. cattle

d. wheat

e. rice

d. wheat
The public health officials and municipal engineers who tried to clean up the city and its public health dangers were called:
a. health care professionals.

b. missionaries.

c. cowboys.

d. garbage men.

e. sanitary reformers.

e. sanitary reformers
Why was Lester Frank Ward’s Dynamic Sociology considered a challenge to William Graham Sumner’s “social Darwinism”?
a. Ward argued that cooperation among people better promoted progress, while Sumner believed in competition.

b. Ward embraced “survival of the fittest,” while Sumner embraced “survival of the smartest.”

c. Ward denied the existence of evolution, while social Darwinism was based entirely on the scientific theory of evolution.

d. Ward was a Democrat and Sumner was a Republican.

e. Ward believed that humans had no control over their destiny, while Sumner argued the opposite.

a. Ward argued that cooperation among people better promoted progress, while Sumner believed in competition.
The spread of mass transit was a major factor in the growth of the suburbs.
t/f
true
Tenement houses in New York City:
a. had higher mortality rates than among the general population.

b. were clean.

c. were cramped, yet offered more privacy than apartments.

d. usually had two to three families in each building.

e. were urban, yet their courtyards offered children a sense of nature.

a. had higher mortality rates than among the general population.
Middle- and upper-class urban families spent much of their leisure time:
a. helping poor people.

b. traveling out west.

c. working long hours at menial jobs for very low wages.

d. in saloons.

e.together at home playing games or reading books.

e. together at home playing games or reading books.
Which region of the United States had the greatest proportion of urban dwellers?
a. the Far West

b. the Northeast

c. the South

d. the Great Plains

e. the middle Atlantic

a. the Far West
Ellis Island was located right outside:
a. Boston

b. NYC

c. San Fransisco

d. Charleston

e. Philadelphia

b. NYC
Herbert Spencer:
a. was the influential president of Harvard University.

b. was the first person to earn a Ph.D. from an American university.

c. cowrote On the Origin of Species with Charles Darwin.

d. coined the phrase “survival of the fittest.”

e. invented the modern game of basketball.

d. coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act:
a. set up the first racial quotas for government service jobs.

b. was vetoed as “an unconstitutional intrusion of government into the private sphere” by Benjamin Harrison.

c. provided for appointments only in the postal service.

d. was signed into law by James Garfield.

e. provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams.

e. provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams.
In an act of terrorism, Spaniards in Cuba blew up the battleship Maine.
t/f
false
Between 1875 and 1890, sugar from Hawaii could enter the United States duty-free.
t/f
true
The purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million proved to be a huge bargain.
t/f
true
As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States:
a. acquired Alaska.

b. acquired Cuba as a colony.

c. emerged as an imperial power.

d. suffered a huge financial strain and went into a depression.

e. was deeply divided between war supporters and opponents.

c. emerged as an imperial power.
By the end of the Spanish-American War:
a. horses proved essential for the Rough Rider victory.

b. more American soldiers had died from disease than battle.

c. America’s victory could be attributed in large part to expert preparation.

d. the American victory in the decisive battle at Santiago depended on assistance from German forces.

e. America finally settled the question of freedom of the seas.

b. more American soldiers had died from disease than battle.
During the election of 1900, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket campaigned on a platform that:
a. supported American territorial acquisitions following the Spanish-American War.

b. opposed the annexation of the Philippines.

c. favored “free silver.”

d. pushed for statehood for Cuba and Puerto Rico.

e. advocated for federal control of the railroads.

a. supported American territorial acquisitions following the Spanish-American War.
Alfred Thayer Mahan:
a. thought a canal in Central America was a waste of money.

b. was little known until Roosevelt read his work.

c. argued that sea power was essential to national greatness.

d. published his best-known book during the Civil War.

e. was a German who influenced American imperial thought.

c. argued that sea power was essential to national greatness.
All of the following were put forward as reasons for the United States annexing the Philippines EXCEPT:
a. gaining access to large oil and coal deposits in the Philippines.

b. acquiring better access to trade with China.

c. the need to keep the Philippines from being taken over by foreign rivals.

d. a belief that Filipinos were unfit for self-government.

e. the desire to Christianize the Filipinos.

a. gaining access to large oil and coal deposits in the Philippines.
What is “yellow journalism”?
a. It speaks to the use of propaganda in underground newspapers published by the Cuban insurrectionists.

b.It refers to the “scared” journalists who filed their stories from Key West, Florida, during the Spanish-American War.

c. It refers to sensationalist news coverage that was designed to sell papers and manipulate public opinion.

d. It was a derogatory insult directed by many Americans toward Japanese journalists in the early twentieth century.

e. It refers to the practice by many financially struggling newspapers of using recycled yellowed newsprint during the 1890s depression.

c. it refers to sensationalists news coverage that was designed to sell papers and manipulate public opinion.
The Platt Amendment:
a. called for Spain to pay for all war reparations.

b. arranged for a Cuban election to decide the issue of annexation.

c. sharply restricted the independence of Cuba’s new government.

d. set up the Army Yellow Fever Commission under Dr. Walter Reed.

e. granted U.S. citizenship to inhabitants of Puerto Rico.

c. sharply restricted the independence of Cuba’s new government.
In the Compromise of 1877, Republicans promised to withdraw the last federal troops from the South.
t/f
true
The Fifteenth Amendment freed the slaves.
t/f
false
President Grant did not seek a third term in 1876 because:
a. in 1875, he acknowledged that many Republicans had lost confidence in his leadership.

b. he was restricted by the Constitution to two terms.

c. he felt he was too old.

d. his alcoholism was revealed to the public.

e. his wife did not want him to run again.

a. in 1875, he acknowledged that many Republicans had lost confidence in his leadership.
The most popular religious denomination among blacks in the postwar South was Baptist.
t/f
true
The Freedmen’s Bureau was the first federal experiment in providing assistance directly to people rather than to states.
t/f
true
The greatest growth of the Knights of Labor took place:
a. in 1875, when the federal government outlawed the use of violence against union members.

b. under the leadership of Uriah S. Stephens.

c. under the leadership of Terence Powderly, when the union had several strikes against the railroads.

d. after the Wobblies split the NLU.

e. as a result of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877

c. under the leadership of Terrence Powderly, when the union had serval strikes against the railroads.
The first transcontinental railroad:
a. was John D. Rockefeller’s first business initiative.

b. led to the bankruptcy of “Commodore” Vanderbilt.

c. was completed in 1844.

d. was built by the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroads.

e. followed a southern route through Texas and the Arizona and New Mexico Territories.

d. was built by the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroads.
Jane Addams is best associated with:
a. Knights of Labor.

b. leading the Molly Maguires.

c. Waters Street House.

d. Hull-House.

e. supporting Mother Jones.

d. the hull house
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT:
a. children suffered three times as many accidents as adults.

b. a child working in a textile mill was only half as likely to reach the age of twenty as a child outside a mill.

c. child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants.

d. the few child labor laws that existed were rarely enforced and often ignored.

e. child laborers often received no education.

c. child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants.
Andrew Carnegie invented the process that enabled a dramatic increase in steel production.
t/f
false
The American Tobacco Company:
a. was the first such government-owned company in the United States.

b. dominated the U.S. tobacco industry by the twentieth century.

c. was based in Dallas, Texas.

d. was second only to the Bull Durham Company in cigarette production at the turn of the century.

e. was Virginia’s largest industrial employer.

b. dominated the U.S. tobacco industry by the twentieth century.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was:
a. endorsed by the Democratic party.

b. declared constitutional.

c. placed under the jurisdiction of the court.

d. replaced by the Civil Rights Act of 1876.

e. declared unconstitutional

e. declared unconstitutional
The 1890 census reported that:
a. Indians still outnumbered whites in the West.

b. the frontier era in American development was over.

c. California had become the most populous state in the Union.

d. it would take several more generations to close the American West to settlement.

e. more people lived in big cities than in rural areas.

b. the frontier era in American development was over.
In the crop-lien system, farmers could grow little besides cotton, tobacco, or some other staple crop.
t/f
true
By 1920, more than half the U.S. population was urban.
t/f
true
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act:
a. set up the first racial quotas for government service jobs.

b. provided for appointments only in the postal service.

c. was signed into law by James Garfield.

d. provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams.

e. was vetoed as “an unconstitutional intrusion of government into the private sphere” by Benjamin Harrison.

d. provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams.
Realists’ emphasis on closely observing everyday life grew out of:
a. the scientific spirit.

b. reform Darwinism.

c. social Darwinism.

d. transcendentalism.

e. socialism.

a. the scientific spirit
What was the purpose of the “subtreasury plan”?
a. It reestablished the gold standard.

b. It said that the national bank could pull supplemental cash from private banks.

c. It allowed farmers to secure low-interest government loans.

d. It reclaimed unused land from the railroads.

e. It promoted deflation by withdrawing silver certificates from circulation.

c. it allowed farmers to secure low-interest government loans.
As president, Rutherford B. Hayes tried to:
a. stay above the party bickering.

b. sue Congress.

c. switch political parties.

d. prevent war.

e. balance the budget.

a. stay above party bickering.