Bio Quiz Chapter 9

1. Women in their reproductive years are likely to carry more intraabdominal fat than are women past menopause. (T or F)F
2. Waist circumference indicates visceral fatness, and above a certain girth, disease risks rise. (T or F)T
3. Eating certain foods can elevate the basal metabolic rate, and thus promote weight loss.( T or F)F
4. Taller people need proportionately more energy than shorter people to balance their energy budgets. ( T or F)T
5. For someone with at least one obese parent, the chance of becoming obese is estimated to be between 30 and 70 percent. (T or F)T
6. Physical activity must be long and arduous to achieve fat loss.(T or F)F
8. The BMI is very valuable in helping athletes determine their health risks. ( T or F)F
9. No single body composition or weight suits everyone; needs vary by gender, lifestyle, and stage of life. (T or F)T
10. Leptin is a hormone produced by the body to stimulate the appetite and encourage eating. (T orF)F
11. The set-point theory states that the body’s regulatory controls will maintain body weight over time and resist efforts to lose weight by dieting.(T or F)F
1. All of the following are risks from being underweight except:
a. earlier death during a famine or siege.
b. higher risk of developing heart disease.
c. greater risk of starvation when suffering from cancer.
d. higher risk of death following surgery.
b. higher risk of developing heart disease.
3. Excess body fatness is associated with an increased risk of:
a. some cancers.
b. gallbladder disease.
c. diverticular disease.
d. a and b
e. b and c
d. a and b( some cancers. AND gallbladder disease.)
4. Excess fat _____ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere on the body.
a. under the skin around the hips
b. deep within the abdomen
c. deep within the shoulders
d. under the skin of the chest
b. deep within the abdomen
5. Waist circumference reflects the degree of _____ in proportion to body fatness.
a. visceral fatness
b. gynoid obesity
c. subcutaneous fat
d. total body fatness
a. visceral fatness
6. A body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 in an adult indicates:
a. normal weight.
b. overweight.
c. underweight.
d. obesity.
b. overweight.
7. A rule of thumb that has been used in the past but does not apply equally to everyone is that one pound of body fat is equal to _____ calories.
a. 2500
b. 3000
c. 3500
d. 4000
c. 3500
8. Which of the following statements about basal metabolism is true?
a. It supports the work that goes on all the time.
b. It is directly controlled by the hormone thyroxine.
c. It accounts for the smallest component of the average person’s daily energy expenditure.
d. a and b
e. b and c
d. a and b (It supports the work that goes on all the time. AND It is directly controlled by the hormone thyroxine.)
9. About _____ percent of a meal’s energy value is used up in stepped-up metabolism in the five or so hours following that meal.
a. 1-5
b. 5-10
c. 10-15
d. 15-20
b. 5-10
10. All of the following factors are associated with a higher basal metabolic rate except:
a. stress.
b. starvation.
c. fever.
d. youth.
b. starvation.
11. Older people generally need less energy than younger people due to:
a. slowed basal metabolic rate.
b. declines in lean body mass.
c. decreases in mental capacity.
d. a and b
e. a and c
d. a and b ( slowed basal metabolic rate. AND declines in lean body mass.)
12. Which of the following is based on weight and height and used in clinical settings to assess weight status?
a. body mass index
b. skin-fold test
c. bioelectrical impedance
d. dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
a. body mass index
13. Body mass index is unsuitable for use with:
a. adolescents.
b. athletes.
c. pregnant women.
d. a and b
e. b and c
e. b and c ( athletes. AND pregnant women.)
14. A woman of normal weight may have, on the average, _____ percent of her body weight as fat.
a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 20
d. 20
15. Hunger makes itself known roughly _____ hours after eating a meal.
a. 1-2 b. 2-3 c. 3-5 d. 4-6
d. 4-6
16. The hormone produced by adipose tissue in response to a gain in body fatness that helps to control obesity is:
a. endorphin.
b. ghrelin.
c. leptin.
d. insulin.
c. leptin.
17. The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:
a. satiety.
b. appetite.
c. hunger.
d. obesity.
b. appetite.
18. All of the following are involved in signaling satiation except:
a. the stomach.
b. the small intestine.
c. the brain’s hypothalamus.
d. the heart.
d. the heart.
19. Which of the following types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods?
a. high in fiber
b. high in protein
c. high in sugar
d. a and b
e. b and c
d. a and b ( high in fiber AND high in protein)
20. _____ tissue is particularly abundant in enzymes that engage in thermogenesis but don’t accomplish any other work.
a. Lean
b. Skeletal muscle
c. Excess adipose
d. Brown adipose
d. Brown adipose
21. One “outside of the body” factor that contributes to obesity is:
a. the “built environment,” which can discourage physical activity.
b. eating automatically in response to hunger cues.
c. spontaneous fidgeting activity.
d. a lack of food availability.
a. the “built environment,” which can discourage physical activity.
22. What is a food desert?
a. an urban area where people live with no access to any foods for purchase
b. an area where no fast-food restaurants are available for quick and easy meals
c. a rural area where only local supermarkets are available
d. an area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants sell food
d. an area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants sell food
23. Quick, large changes in weight are most likely the result of all of the following except:
a. changes in fat stores.
b. changes in body fluid content.
c. changes in electrolytes and fluid balance.
d. changes in lean tissues such as muscles.
a. changes in fat stores
24. In early food deprivation, the nervous system cannot use _____ as fuel.
a. fat
b. glucose
c. protein
d. carbohydrate
a. fat
25. A healthy person starting with average body fat can live totally deprived of food for as long as six to eight weeks due to:
a. acidosis.
b. thermogenesis.
c. metabolism.
d. ketosis
d. ketosis
26. Energy nutrients can be stored in the body as:
a. glycogen.
b. water.
c. fat.
d. a and c
e. a and b
d. a and c ( glycogen. AND fat.)
28. A very-low-carbohydrate diet may be accompanied by:
a. substantial fat loss.
b. ketosis.
c. increased appetite, initially.
d. slow weight loss.
b. ketosis.
29. The foods emphasized by high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets clearly raise the risk for:
a. osteoporosis.
b. kidney disease.
c. heart and artery disease.
d. cancer.
c. heart and artery disease.
31. An eating pattern of foods high in _____ is associated with being overweight.
a. plant proteins
b. nonnutritive sweeteners
c. nutrient density
d. energy density
d. energy density
32. One of the major benefits of physical activity for weight management is:
a. an increase in appetite immediately after exercise.
b. an increase in lean muscle tissue, which burns more energy.
c. being able to eat high-calorie snacks.
d. significantly raising the BMR for several hours after exercise.
b. an increase in lean muscle tissue, which burns more energy.
33. A person trying to gain weight should:
a. participate in strength training.
b. eat more frequently.
c. avoid aerobic activities.
d. a and b
e. a and c
d. a and b ( participate in strength training AND eat more frequently.)
34. Which of the following strategies would be appropriate for an obese individual with a BMI of 40 or above who is healthy?
a. an herbal supplement
b. surgery such as a gastric bypass
c. liposuction or lipectomy
d. an ephedrine-containing dietary supplement
surgery such as a gastric bypass
36. Successful weight maintainers:
a. exercise regularly.
b. avoid commercial weight-loss programs.
c. limit overall food energy.
d. a and b
e. a and c
e. a and c ( exercise regularly. AND limit overall food energy.)
37. Physical activity:
a. results in easier weight loss than calorie restriction.
b. improves chances for weight-loss success.
c. doubles energy expenditure in nonathletes.
d. a and b
e. b and c
improves chances for weight-loss success.
38. The accumulation of excess visceral fat in the body may lead to health complications because:
a. the fat is more quickly mobilized and released into the bloodstream as HDL cholesterol.
b. it can lead to chronic inflammation, which has been linked to heart disease.
c. the fat accumulates in the upper chest area, which can interfere with lung function.
d. the fat distribution is resistant to physical exercise.
b. it can lead to chronic inflammation, which has been linked to heart disease.
39. Mary has a waist circumference of 38 inches. Based on this information you conclude that:
a. she develops fat centrally.
b. she has a large amount of subcutaneous fat.
c. she is at an increased risk for disease.
d. a and b
e. a and c
e. a and c ( she develops fat centrally. AND she is at an increased risk for disease.)
40. A 55-year-old woman with a BMI of 31 and waist circumference of 37 whose father and grandfather died of heart disease is at _____ risk of developing heart disease.
a. low
b. increased
c. high
d. very high
d. very high
41. A woman who is a varsity soccer player has a BMI of 32, a waist circumference of 32, and 30 percent body fat. What would you say about her body composition?
a. she is obese and at risk for developing chronic diseases
b. she has a high level of visceral fat accumulation
c. her performance will be affected by her body fat accumulation
d. she is within recommendations for waist circumference and percent body fat
d. she is within recommendations for waist circumference and percent body fat
43. John’s energy needs are 1930 calories/day, he weighs 200 lb., and he is 5’9″ tall. What would be an appropriate daily calorie intake to promote safe and steady weight loss for him?
a. 1000-1200 calories
b. 1800-1900 calories
c. 930-1430 calories
d. 1430-1630 calories
d. 1430-1630 calories
44. The thermic effect of foods eaten can contribute to total energy expended in a day because:
a. certain foods and herbs can intensify the increase in BMR when eaten with a meal.
b. the energy expended metabolizing food can represent 40% of the daily energy used.
c. it is much more efficient than the energy burned in physical activity.
d. metabolism is slightly stepped up for several hours after a meal in the metabolic response to food.
d. metabolism is slightly stepped up for several hours after a meal in the metabolic response to food.
45. When estimating the BMR for an individual it is important to consider which of the following factors that will affect the rate?
a. the number of hours the person sleeps, because BMR increases during sleep
b. the amount of daily physical activity, because it increases BMR over time
c. the amount of muscle mass, because BMR decreases with additional muscle tissue
d. the age-related increase in BMR as people get older
b. the amount of daily physical activity, because it increases BMR over time
46. Paul is a 19-year-old athlete who is 6′ tall and weighs 178 pounds; Rick is a 40-year-old salesman who weighs 165 pounds and is 5′ 7″ tall. Who would have the higher basal metabolic rate?
a. Rick
b. Paul
b. Paul
47. You are weighing a team of football players and according to the BMI values they appear to be obese. Which of the following would you most likely conclude?
a. The majority of them are probably obese and should make efforts to lose weight.
b. Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated scale weights.
c. Their bones may be well mineralized, which contributes to their weights.
d. a and b
e. b and c
e. b and c ( Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated scale weights. AND Their bones may be well mineralized, which contributes to their weights.)
48. A woman weighs 210 pounds and is 65 inches tall. Calculate her BMI.
a. 3.23 b. 28 c. 35 d. 57
c. 35 (210*703/(65^2)=35)
49. Johnnie’s father is 5′ 11″ tall and weighs 165 pounds, while his mother weighs 164 pounds and is 5′ 2″ tall. Johnnie’s chances of becoming obese are at least _____ percent.
a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 40
c. 30
50. A woman who is trying to get pregnant has a BMI of 17 and a 10 percent body fat value. What factors should she consider concerning her body composition?
a. Her pregnancy outcome may be compromised by her too-low body fat.
b. She needs to increase her body fat percentage to 40 for pregnancy.
c. Her body composition is fine because she will gain weight during pregnancy.
d. She needs to reduce her body fat in preparation for pregnancy.
a. Her pregnancy outcome may be compromised by her too-low body fat.
51. You decide to skip lunch for several weeks to lose weight and fit into a favorite outfit for a special occasion. Which of the following will probably be the greatest obstacle to the success of this plan?
a. hunger
b. appetite
c. satiation
d. satiety
a. hunger
52. The major role that the hormone ghrelin plays in eating is to:
a. signal hunger when the stomach is empty.
b. signal appetite when receiving external stimuli.
c. signal satiation when the stomach is full.
d. signal satiety several hours after a meal.
a. signal hunger when the stomach is empty.
53. You go to the movie theater after eating dinner and smell the popcorn in the concession stand. Although you are full, you start salivating, so you buy a bag to eat during the show. This is an example of what signal for eating?
a. hunger
b. appetite
c. satiation
d. satiety
b. appetite
54. Susie has been overweight for many years. She tends to eat when she is not really hungry and eats more food when she is angry or depressed. Which of the following could explain Susie’s problem of overweight?
a. enzyme deficiencies
b. thermogenesis
c. external cues
d. fat cell numbers
c. external cues
55. How has physical activity played a role in weight trends in the U.S. recently?
a. Physical activity has increased dramatically over the past several years because of concerns with overweight.
b. Outdoor work and play are the main contributors to leisure time activity in this country.
c. Sedentary activities have replaced outdoor play for many people.
d. Passive exercise with machines has helped people to lose weight without physical exertion.
c. Sedentary activities have replaced outdoor play for many people.
56. All of the following are recommendations for physical activity to maintain a healthy body weight except:
a. episodes of physical activity that are at least 10 minutes in duration count toward exercise goals.
b. only aerobic physical activities are beneficial for weight loss.
c. more than 250 minutes per week provides significant weight loss.
d. 150 minutes a week of at least moderate-intensity physical activity is needed for preventing weight gain.
b. only aerobic physical activities are beneficial for weight loss.
58. The best way to use physical activity to assist with weight control is to:
a. begin a high-intensity exercise program to “jump-start” energy expenditure.
b. work on strength-building activities with short duration and many repetitions.
c. walk for 30 minutes twice a week.
d. exercise daily in conjunction with a substantial calorie reduction.
d. exercise daily in conjunction with a substantial calorie reduction.
60. Which individual’s activity had the highest calorie cost?
a. Sara, who weighs 145 lb and did step aerobics (0.062 cal/lb/min) for 35 minutes
b. Ben, who weighs 180 lb and walked on the treadmill (0.048 cal/lb/min) for 25 minutes
c. Mary, who weighs 120 lb and rode her bike (0.076 cal/lb/min) for 20 minutes
d. Andrew, who weighs 163 lb and swam (0.058 cal/lb/min) for 30 minutes
a. Sara, who weighs 145 lb and did step aerobics (0.062 cal/lb/min) for 35 minutes
61. If a person uses fasting to lose weight, how will his or her body react?
a. increase its basal metabolism to burn energy
b. break down fat into ketone bodies to provide fuel
c. become internally cleansed
d. conserve its minerals by restricting their excretion
b. break down fat into ketone bodies to provide fuel
62. When setting a target for weight loss, an appropriate goal would be:
a. rapid weight loss the first several weeks.
b. reduction of BMI by at least 5 points.
c. reduction of body weight by 5-10% over a year’s time.
d. a large, long-term goal to work toward.
c. reduction of body weight by 5-10% over a year’s time
63. An effective method for losing weight would be to:
a. choose your long-term goal, even though it may take several years to accomplish.
b. start with a very low calorie level to give you a quick weight loss initially.
c. keep records of your food intake and exercise to spot trends.
d. use a pre-designed menu plan that is in a popular diet book on the market.
c. keep records of your food intake and exercise to spot trends.
64. Recommendations for planning a diet for weight loss include the following:
a. restrict daily intake to 800 calories initially to start adequate weight loss.
b. eliminate as much fat as possible from the menu.
c. increase meat portions.
d. reduce calories as appropriate based on current BMI.
d. reduce calories as appropriate based on current BMI.
65. The best advice for planning a daily meal pattern for successful weight loss is to:
a. avoid any snacks.
b. eliminate breakfast.
c. eat regularly.
d. have one large meal each day.
c. eat regularly.
66. Which of the following foods has the greatest energy density?
a. french fries that weigh 50 grams and are 167 calories
b. baby carrots that weigh 72 grams and are 31 calories
c. vanilla ice cream that weighs 39 grams and is 155 calories
d. mushroom soup that weighs 65 grams and has 175 calories
c. vanilla ice cream that weighs 39 grams and is 155 calories
67. Which of the following is a valid recommendation for managing portion sizes of foods in order to manage weight?
a. choose smaller plates, glasses, and utensils
b. purchase reduced-calorie foods so you eat more of them
c. eat just until satisfied and then stop, even if food remains
d. a and b
e. a and c
e. a and c ( choose smaller plates, glasses, and utensils AND eat just until satisfied and then stop, even if food remains)
69. A person who is trying to gain weight and muscle mass will achieve the best outcome by:
a. reducing physical activity, because it is burning too many calories.
b. choosing nutrient- and energy-dense foods to help build new body tissue.
c. limiting food intake to three large meals a day to eat more calories at a time.
d. adding weight-gain supplements specially formulated for muscle building.
b. choosing nutrient- and energy-dense foods to help build new body tissue.
71. Your aunt is seriously considering having gastric surgery to help her lose weight because previous weight-loss diets have been unsuccessful. What information would you give to help her make her decision?
a. She should not go through the surgery because of the complications others have experienced.
b. Her BMI of 40 is not high enough to qualify for surgery because she does not have any chronic diseases.
c. It is a good idea because the procedure is very simple and has very few complications.
d. It is a serious decision because of the lifetime medical and nutrition supervision needed after surgery.
d. It is a serious decision because of the lifetime medical and nutrition supervision needed after surgery.
72. A good way to help dieters to solve problems and increase motivation is to teach them to:
a. add new cues for eating.
b. use cognitive restructuring of thoughts.
c. start a new strict physical activity plan.
d. review their failures daily in order to go back and fix them.
b. use cognitive restructuring of thoughts.
73. A woman is using behavior modification to change her eating habits in order to lose weight. Which of her behaviors would be most successful for changing a particular cue?
a. when eating out, asking for a box at the beginning of the meal to split the portion on her plate
b. saving money to reward herself with her favorite meal once she reaches her goal weight loss
c. skipping lunch to eliminate the calories from eating at her usual fast-food restaurant
d. asking her husband to scold her when she eats something not on her diet plan
a. when eating out, asking for a box at the beginning of the meal to split the portion on her plate
Use the green coffee bean supplements label to answer questions 74-78.
74. This supplement:
a. may not provide any benefit since caffeine has not been proven to help in weight loss.
b. is safe because it contains no fillers or additives.
c. should be recommended because dietary supplement use is associated with successful weight loss.
d. can help to achieve permanent weight reduction.
a. may not provide any benefit since caffeine has not been proven to help in weight loss.
76. This product claims to be “all natural.” What does this tell you?
a. the ingredients will be more potent
b. nothing because there is no regulation of the term “natural”
c. the ingredients may not work as well
d. it will be better absorbed
b. nothing because there is no regulation of the term “natural”
77. The statement on the label that the product is “part of a weight management program that includes diet and exercise” indicates that:
a. this product will be a very affective one.
b. it should not be taken without food.
c. it must be combined with proven weight management techniques.
d. it is guaranteed to result in a large weight loss.
c. it must be combined with proven weight management techniques.
78. If a friend is considering purchasing this supplement, what would you tell her?
a. It is worth the price because OTC weight loss supplements have been associated with successful weight loss.
b. Weight-loss drugs help individuals achieve permanent weight loss, so you should ask your doctor for a prescription instead.
c. It is safe since supplements and drugs are tightly controlled and equally free from contaminants.
d. Don’t buy it because some weight-loss supplements have been shown to cause dangerous health complications.
d. Don’t buy it because some weight-loss supplements have been shown to cause dangerous health complications.