Chapter 9

T/F: It is always better for a young child to attend preschool than to be home with a parent.False
T/F: The charting of new vocabulary words by associating them with already-known words is called fast-mapping.True
T/F: The process by which people learn from others who lead their experiences and explorations is called guided participation.True
T/F: The introduction of formal preschool education has occurred within the last century.True
T/F: Preoperational thought involves magical, self-centered imagination rather than logic.True
T/F: For a long time, developmentalists such as Piaget overestimated children’s thinking skills.False
T/F: Jorge is learning Spanish and English simultaneously in his home. Equally fluent in both, he is a balanced bilingual.True
T/F: Teacher-directed preschool programs are similar in nature to the Reggio Emilia approach.False
T/F: The underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is static reasoning.False
T/F: Centration is an obstacle to developing logical operations.True
T/F: Ten-year-old Sarah and 5-year-old Haley were making a special birthday card for their grandmother. As Sarah patiently showed Haley how to carefully glue the lace around the card’s edges, she provided scaffolding for Haley.True
T/F: The best time to learn a second language is in early childhood.True
T/F: Children display evidence of fast-mapping before the age of 1.False
T/F: The preoperational child is incapable of understanding reversibility.True
T/F: Egocentrism is Piaget’s term for a particular type of centration, in which the child thinks about the world from his or her own personal perspective.True
According to Vygotsky, which capability is demonstrated when young children imitate adult actions that are irrelevant, time-consuming, and inefficient?

A. observing
B. scaffolding
C. modeling
D. overimitation

A few days ago, Hester’s parents disciplined her because she refused to eat her green beans. Today when her parents announced that they were going to get a divorce, Hester cried, “Is it because I was bad? I’ll be good!” Hester’s conclusion that her failure to eat her green beans is the reason her parents are getting divorced displays Hester’s _____.

A. deductive reasoning
B. conservation
C. scaffolding
D. theory-theory

Sydney helps her 2-year-old daughter to make hot chocolate. She helps the child to measure teaspoons of cocoa into a cup, add water, stir the contents, and then microwave the cup. Sydney is providing _____.

A. scaffolding
B. overstimulation
C. conservation skills
D. the zone of proximal development

Which 4-year-old boy is likely to have the most advanced theory of mind?

A. Dewei, who is Chinese
B. Carter, who is Canadian
C. Faakhir, who is Indian
D. Jacob, who is from the United States

According to Vygotsky, a teacher who carefully plans each child’s participation in the learning process within the zone of proximal development uses _____.

A. reinforcements for good behavior
B. scaffolding
C. peer mentoring
D. skill construction

When Renee was 11 months old, she was injured in a car crash. She was in a coma for almost a year and then spent many months of recovery from a brain injury. By her third birthday, although she is making good process, she has not yet spoken, and her parents are fearful that she will never speak. The doctors, however, feel confident that Renee will learn to speak. This is because language learning in the first four years is NOT a _____.

A. sensitive period
B. critical period
C. developmental task
D. dynamic system

The underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is _____.

A. the simultaneous development of magical thinking
B. maturation of the prefrontal cortex
C. static reasoning
D. centration

Jessica is reading a story book aloud to her 3-year-old daughter, Abigail. Abigail’s father says, “Why are you bothering? It’s not like she’s going to learn to read from that.” What would you tell Abigail’s father about reading to preschoolers?

A. He’s right; it doesn’t matter whether parents read to their preschoolers.
B. He’s right; children whose parents read aloud to them too early lose interest in books.
C. He’s wrong; children whose parents read to them as preschoolers tend to be better readers in elementary school.
D. He’s wrong; children whose parents read to them by age 3 learn to read by the age of 4.

When shown a novel object and told that it is called a “wug,” preschoolers know that two of those objects would be two “wugs.” This ability to correctly add an -s when pluralizing is evidence of their proper use of _____.

A. inflection
B. logical extensions
C. grammar
D. theory-theory

According to theory-theory, why do children imitate irrelevant adult behaviors?

A. They mindlessly copy everything adults do.
B. They theorize that the irrelevant behavior must be important.
C. They theorize that the adult will reward them for correct imitation.
D. They derive pleasure from correctly imitating behaviors of all sorts.

A key factor that strengthens a preschooler’s cognition is _____.

A. having an older siblings
B. whether or not the child is adopted
C. body weight
D. knowledge of the alphabet

Four-year-old Faisal and his mother were visiting Faisal’s older sister’s kindergarten classroom. Faisal pointed at his sister’s teacher and asked his mother, “What’s that mom’s name?” Faisal’s apparent assumption that all women are mothers is evidence of his use of _____.

A. lexical addition
B. categorical embellishment
C. vocabulary expansion
D. fast-mapping

Most teacher-directed preschool programs stress _____.

A. academics
B. arts and music
C. social skills
D. dual languages

Overregularization occurs because children _____.

A. tend to regress briefly before progressing to new forms of language
B. have no understanding of past, present, and future verb tenses
C. assume that the language is less regular than it actually is
D. assume their language always follows the rules they already know

If you want to find reliably high-quality group care for your preschooler, what term should you look for?

A. pre-K
B. preschool
C. nursery school
D. none of these labels reliably indicates quality

T/F: A preschooler’s approach to the world is controlled more by his or her own subjective views of the world than by reality.True
T/F: The “vocabulary explosion” typically occurs at about 1 year of age.False
T/F: The development of theory of mind has been demonstrated across cultures.True
T/F: Piagetians believed in scaffolding, a learning process that involves mentors who guide the child.False
T/F: The preoperational child is incapable of understanding reversibility.True
T/F: Montessori schools focus on using materials and projects in such a way that children have a strong sense of accomplishment.True
T/F: Studies suggest that preschool education, such as that provided by Head Start, advances the social and academic development of disadvantaged children.True
T/F: If a child’s home environment is poor, early education programs won’t be beneficial.False
T/F: Ten-year-old Sarah and 5-year-old Haley were making a special birthday card for their grandmother. As Sarah patiently showed Haley how to carefully glue the lace around the card’s edges, she provided scaffolding for Haley.True
T/F: The results of a study with 3-year-old children revealed that children are more interested in copying adults than in understanding why adults act out certain human behaviors.False
Beverly and her mother were shopping for a birthday gift for Beverly’s father. “How about this? Daddy would love it!” Beverly exclaimed, showing her mother a pink and purple toy horse with flowing mane and tail. Beverly’s belief that her father would enjoy a toy that she herself would enjoy is an example of _____.

A. static reasoning
B. egocentrism
C. irreversibility
D. conservatism

According to Vygotsky, a child’s first guided participation is provided by a mentor who is likely a _____.

A. classmate
B. teacher
C. parent
D. older sibling

Four-year-old Graciela is a balanced bilingual, which means that she _____.

A. speaks her native language fluently but has fluency issues when speaking her second language
B. understands her native language and her second language but speaks only in her native language
C. is fluent in both her native language and her second language
D. understands her native language but speaks her second language more fluently

Joachim lives in the United States. His mother speaks to him in Spanish. His father speaks to him in German. His parents hope that Joachim will _____.

A. speak English with an accent
B. become a balanced trilingual
C. experience a language shift
D. not learn English

According to Vygotsky, within the context of cognition, language is a tool _____.

A. to make oneself understood
B. to regulate behavior
C. to advance thought
D. of self-expression

Which child is MOST apt to have the best-developed theory of mind?

A. Nanette, age 3, who is the oldest of three children
B. Brianna, age 4, who is an only child
C. Boris, age 3 1/2, who has a twin sister
D. Reginald, age 3 1/2, who has two older siblings

Child-centered programs are often influenced by the theories of _____ and _____.

A. Piaget; Freud
B. Piaget; Vygotsky
C. Vygotsky; Skinner
D. Skinner; Freud

Which early childhood method has been found to boost reading several years later in elementary school?

A. code-focused teaching
B. teacher-directed programs
C. the “Hooked on Phonics” program
D. the “My Baby Can Read” program

In 2011 in the United States, 22 percent of children spoke English at school and _____ at home.

A. English
B. another language
C. Spanish
D. Chinese

Learning Circle Preschool emphasizes individual pride and achievement while focusing on teaching young children literacy-related tasks. Learning Circle’s approach seems to most closely resemble a(n) _____ program.

A. intervention
B. Montessori
C. Reggio Emilia
D. bilingual

Children typically understand the basics of grammar by the _____.

A. age of 2
B. time the child has a vocabulary of about 300 words
C. time the child has a vocabulary of about 600 words
D. age of 5

“I catched two mouses in a trap” is an example of _____.

A. egocentric speech
B. overregularization
C. literal translation
D. past imperfect tense

T/F: Vygotsky believed cognitive growth was a process of individual discovery, propelled by experience and biological maturation.False
T/F: The biggest long-term gains from intensive, early intervention programs were seen in boys from high-poverty neighborhoods in a Chicago preschool program.True
Aaliyah lies in her bed at night, talking out loud. Her parents listen from the hallway and hear her talking about her day as if she’s talking to another person. What should her parents conclude about Aaliyah’s behavior?

A. She’s engaging in private speech, and it is completely normal.
B. She’s engaging in private speech, and it is a sign of abnormal development.
C. She thinks there is someone else in the room.
D. Children who talk out loud when alone are usually experiencing bullying at school.

A preschool child thinks a tall 20-year-old man is older than a short 40-year-old man. This is an example of _____.

A. egocentrism
B. static thinking
C. focus on appearance
D. symbolic thinking

Preschoolers try to construct a reason for the things that they see and hear. This tendency is known as _____.

A. reversibility
B. focus on appearance
C. theory-theory
D. logical reasoning

A child’s inability to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original situation is called _____.

A. concrete operations
B. conservation
C. irreversibility
D. symbolic thought

When Jennie sees her third-grade teacher in the grocery store, she is shocked to see her outside of school. This is likely due to Jennie’s _____.

A. static reasoning
B. abstract reasoning
C. concrete thinking
D. irreversibility

Research has shown that the development of a theory of mind varies according to _____.

A. outdoor playtime
B. time watching TV
C. social interactions with older siblings
D. diet and exercise

What has research found to be the most effective way to teach English to children of Hispanic heritage while simultaneously improving their Spanish?

A. providing an English-only curriculum at school and encouraging the use of Spanish at home
B. providing the majority of instruction in Spanish, with a small amount of time reading in English each day
C. combining English and Spanish instruction
D. completely immersing the children in the English language and discouraging the use of Spanish at home

A child is shown two identical tall containers, both half-filled with water. The contents of one container are then poured into a short, wide container. If the child states that both containers still have the same amount, then the child understands the concept of _____.

A. classification
B. conservation
C. centration
D. transformation

Which is an example of scaffolding?

A. David helps his son build a model airplane by assembling it while his son watches.
B. Howard and Priscilla buy a Wii game system for their 5-year-old daughter Rebecca. They set it up for her and then allow her to figure out how to turn it on and use it.
C. Richard buys a do-it-yourself kite kit for his 6-year-old daughter Angela. He lays all of the pieces out for her and then allows her to read the instructions and follow them herself.
D. Miriam helps her son Ben to make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon.

T/F: Overregularization is actually a sign of increased verbal knowledge.True
T/F: Interactive reading with preschoolers has been found to enhance their reading abilities in elementary school.True
T/F: By the age of 6, many children have a vocabulary of about 10,000 words.True
Christopher’s mother is considering different wallpapers for decorating Christopher’s room. She asks him, “Which one do you like better: the striped or the plaid?” Christopher’s vocabulary doesn’t include the word “plaid,” but he’s able to figure out what the word must mean based on the context. Christopher is using _____ to add a new word to his vocabulary.

A. lexical addition
B. categorical embellishment
C. vocabulary expansion
D. fast-mapping

Researchers have discovered that _____ helps a child to develop theory of mind months ahead of a child who does not.

A. learning the alphabet
B. going to day care
C. having a religious faith
D. living with older siblings

Demetrius’s family recently immigrated to the United States from the Ukraine. After he attended kindergarten, his parents noticed that his English was more fluent than his native language. Demetrius was exhibiting _____.

A. a language shift
B. accelerated bilingualism
C. a vocabulary explosion
D. linguistic egocentrism

All of the following are common concerns that parents have about raising bilingual children EXCEPT _____.

A. that the child will be only semilingual
B. that the child will master language later than his or her peers
C. that the child will surpass his or her parents in the second language
D. that the child will become confused by the two languages

Which of the following is the least important factor in fostering learning in young children?

A. a warm teacher-child relationship
B. consistency among the adults who teach an individual child
C. structure in the learning environment
D. the type of curriculum

The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which a child thinks about the world only from his or her personal perspective is _____.

A. static reasoning
B. egocentrism
C. irreversibility
D. conservatism

A child’s ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called _____.

A. fast-mapping
B. word mapping
C. mental language
D. word charting

Overregularization in a child’s speech patterns indicates that _____.

A. the child is entering a sensitive period of language development
B. the child can apply grammatical rules to vocalizations
C. logical extension is now possible
D. fast-mapping has occurred

Nine-year-old Bobby has no problem understanding that the 20-year-old woman who sometimes stays with him is both a student and a babysitter. According to Piaget, this is because Bobby’s thinking has moved beyond _____.

A. conservation
B. object permanence
C. overregularization
D. centration

Low-income males in Chicago who attended the High/Scope preschool had such long-lasting benefits from the program that for every $1 spent on the program, society saved _____ because as adults, the men avoided incarceration and paid income taxes.

A. $2
B. $4
C. $7
D. $12

T/F: The temporary, sensitive structure provided by others to a developing child who is learning new skills is known as the zone of proximal development.False
Benjy is a preschooler. He can put a dish into the microwave and press the “2” button to cook for 2 minutes. One day he sees his mother wipe the front of the microwave with a damp paper towel before she presses a number button. After that, Benjy rubs the front of the microwave with a napkin before he presses the number button. Why?

A. He is overimitating his mom.
B. He has forgotten how the microwave works.
C. He is providing scaffolding for his mom.
D. He is engaging in guided participation.

Sunnymont Preschool has plenty of opportunities for the children to play dress-up, dance, build with blocks, finger-paint, and be creative. Sunnymont is most likely a _____ program.

A. Vygotsky-based
B. child-centered
C. teacher-directed
D. bilingual

Daryl has a ball of Silly Putty. His 6-year-old son, Mason, watches as Daryl flattens the Silly Putty into a thin “pancake.” When Daryl asks Mason if there is now more Silly Putty, Mason replies “Yes” because he has _____.

A. an understanding of scaffolding
B. not mastered the concept of conservation
C. an understanding of object permanence
D. demonstrated fast-mapping

Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, “Naughty table!” This is an example of _____.

A. egocentrism
B. operational thinking
C. centration
D. animism

When a child is learning a second language, the basics of language learning such as the vocabulary explosion, fast-mapping, and overregularization apply _____.

A. only to the child’s native language
B. only to the child’s second language
C. to both the native and second language
D. to receptive language comprehension but not speaking

Only after a child has developed theory of mind can he or she _____.

A. offer comfort to a crying playmate
B. tell a lie
C. feel anger
D. take turns sharing

One of the milestones of preoperational thought is the ability to _____.

A. use symbolic thought
B. understand reversibility
C. display conservation
D. think logically

T/F: Theory of mind develops more rapidly when a child has an older sibling.True
Researchers now believe that Piaget _____ cognition in infancy and _____ cognition in early childhood.

A. overestimated; overestimated
B. underestimated; underestimated
C. overestimated; underestimated
D. underestimated; overestimated

By the age of 2, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _____ words; by the age of 6, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _____ words.

A. 500; 10,000
B. 5,000; 10,000
C. 200; 40,000
D. 100; 2,000

Piaget called the stage of human cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 “preoperational intelligence” because children do not yet _____.

A. have intelligence
B. use logical operations
C. understand language
D. produce language

In the United States, low-income children are offered a free preschool education through _____.

A. the War on Poverty
B. the Public Broadcasting System
C. the Women, Infants, and Children program
D. Head Start

According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child _____.

A. interacts with a mentor to accomplish a task
B. is told instructions for a task only once
C. discovers the solution to a task on his or her own
D. be taught new skills by other children

“You are your mom’s daughter, right?” Grandpa asked Beatriz.
“Yes!” Beatriz eagerly answered.
“Well, your mom is my daughter,” Grandpa replied.
“No! She’s my Mommy!” Beatriz exclaimed. Why did Beatriz make this error?

A. conservation
B. object permanence
C. overregularization
D. centration