223 Exam 4
|The median age of first time marriage in the U.S. is now _____ for men and _____ for women.|
|While dating is a part of a pattern of courtship that can potentially lead to marriage, it can also do all of the following EXCEPT|
-help adolescents to learn to establish intimacy with another individual.
|-establish sexual or gender identity/preference.|
|Alan is a very masculine young man who excels in typical male-oriented activities. Still, he is sexually attracted to other men. For Alan, being attracted to other men is his|
|All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to marry EXCEPT|
-it is seen as the appropriate culmination of a loving relationship and the right thing to do.
|-marriage offers a guaranteed commitment to both parties.|
|What percentage of women outlive their husbands?|
|The age at which adolescents have sexual intercourse for the first time is ________, and _____ have had sex before the age of 20.|
|Which group of divorced women has the best opportunity to be remarried?|
-women under the age of 25
|-women under the age of 25|
|Which of the following is an example of “bottom of the barrel” men?|
-men who do not marry because they cannot find a woman of low enough status
|-men who do not marry because they cannot find a woman of low enough status|
|Stella and Anthony have been happily married for 22 years, and they still enjoy an active sex life and participate in many activities together. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship|
|Psychologist Robert Sternberg suggests that love requires a more complex explanation and is made up of|
|Girls who mature early tend to experience|
-enhanced cognitive development.
|-more popularity, which can enhance their self-concept.|
|Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of a happy marriage?|
-Partners show affection and communicate relatively little negativity about one another.
|-Partners establish early on in the marriage the superior and inferior positions of the partners.|
|Research indicates that when girls are exposed to unusually high levels of ________ prenatally, they are more likely to display stereotypical male behaviors.|
|Which of the following is NOT a factor in keeping older women from marrying or remarrying?|
-There are more elderly women than men.
|-There is less social stigma toward the lesbian lifestyle.|
|When a person pursues sexual reassignment surgery because they feel as though they were born with the wrong physical sex (i.e., trapped in the wrong body), this is called being|
|Which of the following is the LEAST likely to have difficulty adjusting to late maturation?|
-tenth grade late-maturing girls
|-tenth grade late-maturing girls|
|Studies indicate that sexual orientation is|
-based primarily on genetic predisposition.
|produced by a combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors.|
|What percentage of people eventually marry?|
|When does research suggest that a man is most likely to leave his wife for a younger woman?|
-when the marriage is 7 years old
|-soon after the man retires and is in psychological turmoil|
|Jorge has been taught to marry a woman who is younger, smaller, and lower in status. This is referred to as the|
|Singlehood has increased significantly in the past several decades, encompassing ____ percent of women and ______ percent of men.|
|An explanation for cross-cultural similarities in gender differences rests on|
|According to Robert Sternberg, fatuous love develops when _________ is(are) present.|
-intimacy and decision/commitment
|-passion and decision/commitment|
|Developmentalists suggest that along with early/late maturity, all of the following may be more pertinent in determining an adolescent’s behavior EXCEPT|
|Social norms oppose premarital sex for women in all of these areas EXCEPT|
|In what culture does the marriage gradient make finding a spouse difficult when the person is well educated?|
-Asian American men
|-African American women|
|According to the chart of phases of marital satisfaction in the text, at which point in the marriage is the level of satisfaction at its peak?|
-at the beginning of the marriage
|-when the couple is retired|
|Which group of teenagers in the U.S. has shown the steepest decline in the number of teenage births in the past decade?|
|-Non-Hispanic Black Americans|
|According to Robert Sternberg, empty love develops when only _________ is present.|
|Which of the following terms describes the period of sexual maturation?|
|According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, the components of love include all of the following EXCEPT a(n)|
-passion component that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance.
|-companionate love in which strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.|
|What is the legal alternative to marriage in France in which couples receive many of the same legal rights as married couples without a legal lifetime commitment?|
|-Civil Solidarity Pact|
|In what culture do men rank good health more important in marriage than love?|
|According to Robert Sternberg, infatuated love develops when only _________ is present.|
|Children living in blended families may be uncertain about their responsibilities and how to behave toward stepparents and stepsiblings. This is known as|
|When did the fertility rate peak in the United States?|
-after World War I when each woman had 4.5 children
|-after World War II when each woman had 3.7 children|
|According to Damon, the first stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is|
-basing friendship on intelligence.
|-basing friendship on others’ behavior.|
|Because of the adolescent’s development of _________, the balance of power in the relationship between parents and adolescent becomes more _______ toward the end of adolescence.|
-metacognitive skills; in favor of the adolescent
|If an adolescent student is liked by some and disliked by others, that adolescent is considered|
|What percent of African American divorced women in late adulthood live below the poverty level?|
|Discernible benefits when children leave home include all of the following EXCEPT|
-the parents have more time for recreational activities.
|-spouses may have less time to go on “dates.|
|Allison is well liked by the other members of her swim team, but not well liked by other adolescent girls in her homeroom class. Allison would be considered|
|What is the term for play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something?|
|Frederick is living in a specialized living environment where all residents are of retirement age and in need of some level of care. Frederick is in a(n)|
|According to Damon, the second stage of building friendship for middle-school- age children is|
-basing friendship on intelligence.
|-basing friendship on trust.|
|After a divorce, children tend to feel pressured to choose sides between the mother and father, and may experience a degree of divided loyalty by the age of ____ years.|
-5- to 6
|Children living in poverty experience many more disruptions than children in socioeconomically secure environments do. Examples of these disruptions include all of the following EXCEPT|
-frequent moving by the family to find work.
|-living in single-parent households.|
|Adolescent membership in particular cliques and crowds is often determined by|
-how geographically close the adolescents reside to one another.
|-the degree of similarity with members of the group.|
|What is a major drawback of some continuing-care facilities?|
-requiring a substantial initial payment
|-requiring a substantial initial payment|
|“Companionate” grandparents usually are all of the following EXCEPT they|
-don’t take responsibility for their grandchildren.
|-hold clear expectations about the way their grandchildren should behave.|
|Children who grow up in which of the following families tend to have a strong sense of extended family?|
-families headed by gay and lesbian parents
|-families headed by African American or Hispanic American parents|
|What are the major effects of poverty in children?|
-High rates of aggression, poorer academic performance, and conduct problems
|-High rates of aggression, poorer academic performance, and conduct problems|
|What percent of people over the age of 65 live with family members?|
|What is the approximate percentage of children in the U.S. who spend their entire childhood living in the same household with both parents?|
|Groups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another are called|
|Middle-school-age girls tend to __________; while middle-school-age boys tend to ________.|
-play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy.
|-play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy.|
|Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood?|
-similar racial or ethnic background
|In the 1930s, 70% of Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have was _________. In the 1990s, Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have is|
-5 or more; no more than three if money is no object.
|-3 or more; no more than two, although three or more is ideal if money is no object.|
|Couples in their middle age that must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents are called|
-empty nest parents.
|Sally’s adolescent classmates call her and the other 125 members of her advanced computer software group “nerds,” meaning she is part of a|
|Raul and Raymond are 4 and 5-years-old, and the main benefit they get out of being “best” friends is|
-the enjoyment of carrying out shared activities.
|-trust, support, and shared interests.|
|What is the term for action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves?|
|Preschoolers’ peer relationships are based on|
-care, protection, and direction.
|-the desire for companionship, play, and fun.|
|All but which of the following apply to “remote” grandparents?|
-they are detached and distant from their grandchildren.
|-they hold clear expectations about the way their grandchildren behave.|
|Boys’ play tends to come in bursts rather than in more extended, tranquil episodes, due in part to|
-lack of social competence skills.
|-boys’ concern over dominance hierarchy known as restrictive play.|
|Children and adolescents who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions are called|
|Which of the following age groups of women giving birth have increased over earlier decades?|
|All of the following are reasons why friendships are more highly valued by older people in late adulthood than family relationships EXCEPT|
-the ability to make friendships offers an element of control in one’s life.
|-new friendships require much less time and effort than maintaining family ties.|
|Three children in the preschool class are working to complete puzzles, and they all take turns fitting in the pieces. This is an example of|
|What percentage of children in the U.S. live in “blended families”?|
|Which of the following is NOT a reason why boomerang children return home to live with middle-aged parents?|
-breakup of a marriage
|-middle-age parents miss their children|
|What is the term for play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds?|
|_________ is assistance and comfort supplied by a network of caring, interested people.|
|Following a divorce, a child may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT|
|The number of children that one generation must produce to be able to replenish its numbers is called|
|Several 4-year-old boys are sitting at a table playing with cars in a makeshift race, and one boy stands by the table watching them. Occasionally, the boy who is standing calls out for the green car to go faster, but he does not actually join in the game. This is an example of|
|Which of the following is the best example of functional play?|
-skipping or jumping
|-skipping or jumping|
|Sue will retire next year. She has a good retirement plan and has made several wise investments. Friends ask her if she is concerned about retirement. Sue informs her friends that she doesn’t really worry about retirement and will take each day as it comes. According to Nancy Schlossberg, Sue will take which path in her retirement?|
|According to your author, the motivation of middle-school-age girls to solve conflict among friends is due to|
-lack of self-confidence.
|-the desire to maintain an equal-status relationship lacking in dominance hierarchy.|
|Renee is 67 years old and is in the hospital because she broke her hip. She will need extensive physical therapy for two months. Which of the following is the proper facility to provide care for her?|
|Thinking about “old age” and associating it with nursing homes is a|
-way of life.
|What is the term for play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests?|
|With regard to children of divorced parents, all of the following are true EXCEPT|
-twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families.
|-most children of divorce who choose sides after the divorce never regain relationships with the both parents.|
|Adolescents’ views of societal problems are|
-not influenced by their families, communities, or peers.
|-ones with which their parents would be likely to agree.|
|Which of the following is LEAST likely to drop out of high school prior to graduation in the U.S.?|
-a teenaged African American male
|-a teenaged Asian American male|
|It is not easy to know precisely what adolescents do with their leisure time. Which of the following methodologies are social scientists using to discover what adolescents do with their spare time?|
|-Experience Sampling Method|
|Which of the following is not considered a benefit of child care?|
|Anthropologist John Ogbu compares the involuntary immigration of Africans as slaves to America, and the motivation to succeed educationally in subsequent generations of African Americans to|
-the voluntary immigration of Italian-Americans to America and the motivation for learning and success in subsequent generations.
|-the involuntary immigration of Koreans to Japan during World War II and the motivation for learning and success in subsequent generations.|
|Because independent measures of achievement, such as SAT scores, have not risen in the past decade, but overall grades in school have risen over the past decade, the most likely explanation for this is|
-student performance in school has changed for the better, and the students are demonstrating more achievement.
|-instructors have become more lenient, awarding higher grades for the same performance, which is known as “grade inflation.”|
|What percent of white high school graduates enters college?|
|_____________ refers to the changes and adjustments that occur when groups of different people come into sustained firsthand contact.|
|Kevin and Kathleen, first-year college students, take a survey on whether they are above or below average on a variety of traits and abilities. Kevin is more likely to think of himself as|
-above average in academic ability but below average in emotional health.
|-above average in overall mathematical ability and emotional health.|
|Parents in China, Japan, and the United States all see the benefits of preschools in a different way. What do Japanese parents view as the most likely benefit of preschool?|
-academic head start
|-experience of being a member of a group|
|Which country in the world has the fastest pace of living?|
|What is a major problem facing adolescents in cyberspace?|
-Sites to buy term papers
|The phenomenon known as the “digital divide” is|
-the difference between students who use the Internet for entertainment purposes, such as movies, games, and gambling, and students who use the internet for schoolwork.
|-the challenge involving socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity where poorer adolescents and members of minority groups have less access to computers than more affluent adolescents.|
|________________ is the term for the integration of cultures, social movements, and financial markets around the world.|
|___________ refers to how members of ethnic, racial, and cultural minorities view themselves.|
|Developmental psychologists have found that children can benefit from involvement in some form of ___________ before they enroll in formal schooling, which takes place at age 5 or 6 in the U.S.|
-quality television watching
|Anthropologist John Ogbu argues that members of certain minority groups may have low academic achievement because|
-these groups perceive that school success is relatively unimportant with regard to their success in the workplace because of prejudice.
|-these groups perceive that school success is relatively unimportant with regard to their success in the workplace because of prejudice.|
|Differences in gender distribution and attrition rates across subject areas reflect which of the following?|
– gender stereotypes
|– gender stereotypes|
|Which of the following is a reason why older, nontraditional students attend college?|
|Juanita is from Argentina and her family has just moved to the United States. She has enrolled at a local high school but still wants to maintain her identity with her culture. This process is referred to as:|
|The extent of identification with one’s ethnicity increases with|
|Which of the following countries’ students has the highest academic achievement in math in the world?|
|The national dropout rate for African American college students is approximately|
|The guidance counselor at Elm Street Elementary has been asked to present a discussion to the school’s PTA regarding creating an atmosphere that promotes school success. One of her topics should include:|
-Promoting a “Literacy Environment.”
|-Promoting a “Literacy Environment.”|
|Which of the following terms describes the process in which people identify with the ethnic minority culture to which they belong while rejecting the majority culture?|
|Certain people not only may adopt the values and beliefs of the majority, but are only relatively weakly identified with their own culture and may reject the values and beliefs of their own culture. Which of the following terms best describes this position?|
|Poverty plays a large role in determining whether a student completes high school. Students from lower-income households are_____ less likely to complete high school than are middle- and higher-income students.|
|According to research studies, the U.S. has a quicker tempo of living than which of the following countries?|
|What was the result of a study on technology use conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation?|
-Cyberspace has a positive outcome on young people.
|-Young people spend an average of 6.5 hours a day with media.|
|What is the term for maintaining one’s original culture identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture?|
|Data on school achievement indicates that, on average, African American and Hispanic students tend to|
-receive high grades until high school.
|-perform at lower levels and receive lower grades.|
|Approximately how many hours per week does the average middle-aged person spend socializing?|
|Parents in China, Japan, and the United States all see the benefits of preschools in a different way. What do Chinese parents view as the most likely benefit of preschool?|
-academic head start
|-academic head start|
|What percent of students entering college finish four years later with a degree?|
|As people age, there is a need for consistency and stabilization in their life. However, this change in attitude can reduce issues regarding risk-taking behavior and force people on acquiring the ability to support their family. This is referred to as|