1st test

Keith has won the lottery and now has more money than he ever dreamed of having. This incident will likely affect Keith’s development and is an example of a:nonnormative life event.
Lynne, 5, loves to draw and color. She represents the world with words and her drawings. According to Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Lynne is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.preoperational
Erik Erikson’s developmental theory consists of _____ stages that last from the first year of life to:eight; late adulthood.
Cohort effects are due to all of the following EXCEPTActual age of individual
Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons older individuals are happier and report more satisfaction with their lives?An increase in physical problems
Two-year-old Julia is learning to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is “no.” This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson’s life-span stage of:autonomy versus shame and doubt.
Dr. McLean has designed a study to test the cognitive skills of people in their thirties, fifties, and seventies where data is collected over the course of a day through a series of tests. What type of research approach is Dr. McLean using?Cross-sectional
_____ age is an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.Psychological
_____ processes refer to changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.cognitive
Dr. Wilman is researching the place women occupy in families in Japan and the U.S. Dr. Wilman is conducting a(n) _____ study.cross-cultural
_____ psychology emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and “survival of the fittest” in shaping behavior.Evolutionary
Tristan has a genetic disorder that results from an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks. His doctor told Tristan’s mother that he has:Fragile X syndrome.
Joshua, 2, has been diagnosed with _____, a blood disorder that limits the body’s oxygen supply and can cause joint swelling and heart and kidney failure. This genetic disorder can be treated through penicillin, pain medication, antibiotics, and blood transfusions, and his doctor has indicated that a study named Baby HUG may offer a better drug in the future.sickle-cell anemia
The _____ provides an environment that is temperature- and humidity-controlled, as well as shockproof.amniotic fluid
Rachel loves to read books and also encourages her daughter to read by regularly taking her to the local library and buying her lots of books. Rachel’s daughter is now an avid reader. This reflects a(n) _____ correlation.passive genotype-environment
A mistake by the cellular machinery, or damage from an environmental agent such as radiation, may produce a _____, which is a permanently altered segment of DNA.mutated gene
The _____ prevents large molecules like red blood cells and harmful substances, such as most bacteria and maternal wastes, from entering the fetus.placental wall
_____ is a stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell.Fertilization
Emma and Anna are identical twins who were adopted by different families a few weeks after birth. Although genetically identical, they grew up with different physical and psychological characteristics. For example, though both inherited a tendency to grow large, Anna was slim and athletic due to the active lifestyle practiced in her adoptive family. This variability can be explained by how:for each genotype, a range of phenotypes can be expressed.
Which of the following is an example of a passive genotype-environment correlation?Parents who have a genetic predisposition to be musically inclined encourage their children to learn how to play a musical instrument.
Feelings or affects that occur when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his/her well-being, are known as:emotions
John Bowlby argued that infants develop a(n) _____ model of attachment.internal working
When an infant puts her thumb in her mouth to help soothe herself, the infant is exhibiting:the ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity and duration of emotional reactions.
According to Erikson, _____ are keys to establishing a basic trust in infants.physical comfort and sensitive care
In the Aka pygmy culture in Africa, fathers:spend as much time interacting with their infants as mothers do.
In their longitudinal investigation, Chess and Thomas found that _____ percent of the children they studied could be classified as difficult.10
Which of the following best exemplifies the difference between how mothers and fathers interact with their children?Fathers are more physical with their children.
Three-month-old Zoey looks up at her mother and smiles. Researchers call this type of smiling:social smiling.
The interactions between parents and infants are described as _____ when all is going well.reciprocal
According to psychiatrists Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas, a(n) _____ child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood.slow-to-warm-up
Infants usually double their birth weight by the age of:four months.
_____ are tiny gaps, or junctions, between neurons’ fibers.Synapses
Nadine’s doctor is assessing her fine motor skills, thus they are going to look at her ability to:perform finely tuned movements like using a pencil.
Baby Luis is interacting with grandma and makes gurgling sounds in the back of his throat to express his pleasure. This demonstrates:cooing
The cerebral cortex has two _____, each of which is further divided into four _____.hemispheres; lobes
The cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the:top—the head—with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom.
In the “sticky mittens” research project, it was found that:the infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier.
All of the following are elements of a rich verbal environment EXCEPT:Watching television with your child
A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called:language
Baby Jane, three days old, is shown four drawings: a bright blue square, a white oval, a yellow circle, and a drawing of a face. In view of Fantz’s work, which drawing would she probably prefer to look at?The face
Jean Mandler argues that early categorizations are best described as _____ categorization. That is, the categorizations are based on similar features of objects such as size, color, and movement, as well as parts of objects, such as legs for animals.perceptual
Benji starts calling his father “Dad,” but he also calls all men that he sees “dad.” According to Piaget, this error is due to:assimilation
Rebecca says, “Milk spill.” Her grandfather replies, “Yes, the milk spilled on the floor.” This is an example of:expanding
Remembering how to swim is an example of:implicit memory.
Baby Kendra, who is 6 days old, is presented with two breast pads. One comes from her mother, and the other has not been used. Which one will Kendra probably prefer?Kendra will prefer her mother’s breast pad.
Which of the following statements about perception in infants is true?Newborns cannot hear soft sounds quite as well as adults can.
Franz believes that we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us and that perception is designed for action. He is most likely holding a(n) _____ perspective.ecological
Child-directed speech is the:unique way that parents (and others) talk to babies.
Your ability to process language in the left hemisphere and spatial thinking in the right hemisphere is due to:lateralization.
Infants who spent most of their time sleeping during the night as opposed to during the dayshowed higher levels of executive function at age 4.
A recessive gene exerts its influence only if:both genes in a pair are recessive.
The fetus that Calista is carrying has reached the age of viability, meaning that it has a chance of surviving outside of the womb. Therefore, it can be inferred that Calista is _____ weeks pregnant.24 to 25
In terms of teratogenic effects, X-ray radiation is an example of:an environmental hazard.
Which maternal age group has increased risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and fetal death?Thirty-five years and older
The period that follows the birth of a child is called:postpartum.
According to evolutionary psychology, the observed advantage in spatial skills for men over women might be the result of:the need to track and slay one’s food to survive.
Which of the following is TRUE of the stages of childbirth?The first stage is the longest of the three birth stages.
_____ is a stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell.Fertilization
A mistake by the cellular machinery, or damage from an environmental agent such as radiation, may produce a _____, which is a permanently altered segment of DNA.mutated gene
Charlie is a cooperative, attentive child who is a favorite at home and school and receives positive, instructive responses from adults. This is indicative of a(n):evocative genotype-environment correlation.
Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He is also wondering if he should move in with his girlfriend and about their long-term prospects. Travis is most likely in the _____ period of development.early adulthood
Brittany is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Her thoughts are more logical, abstract, and idealistic. She is also experiencing rapid physical changes such as gains in height and weight. Which of the following periods of development is Brittany most likely in?Adolescence
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, a person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood constitute his/her:microsystem.
In predicting an adult woman’s behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. This reflects the concept of:social age.
Dr. Berenstein holds the view that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. Dr. Berenstein can be described as a(n):psychoanalytic theorist.
Dr. Nasrin believes that associating behavior with consequence can shape the probability of a behavior occurring. He is arguing that _____ conditioning is important for behavioral modification.operant
Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes how _____ guide(s) cognitive development.culture and social interaction
_____ has the longest span of any period of development and the number of people in this age group has been increasing dramatically.Late adulthood
When she was a child, Anna’s home was wrecked by a tornado and her neighbor was killed. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified of storms. This is an example of how a ____ event can influence a person’s development.nonnormative life
_____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.Psychoanalytic
Which of the following statements about caregivers of resistant babies is likely to be true?They tend to show little synchrony when interacting with the children.
In terms of managing and guiding infants’ behavior, which method is MOST common for infants 12 months old?Diverting attention
Which of the following terms is used to describe the mutually regulated interactions between parents and infants?Synchronous
The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. It requires the infant to:move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his/her mother and a stranger.
In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Latoya as:insecure avoidant.
When put on the floor to play, baby Elaine cries as if she wants to be held. When her mother picks her up, though, Elaine pushes away with both arms and turns her head away. Mary Ainsworth would say that Elaine is:insecure resistant.
According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, which of the following occurs during phase 3?With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father.
Juan has been showing marked increase in his imitative and reciprocal play; he goes around imitating nonverbal actions like jumping and running. Juan is probably:between 18 and 24 months old.
Which of the following is a characteristic of reciprocal socialization?It is bidirectional.
According to developmental psychologists, the best time to soothe an infant is:right before the infant gets into an intense, agitated state.
Juan-Carlos was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered:small for date.
_____ mainly focuses on the isolation and examination of fetal cells circulating in the mother’s blood and analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma.Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD)
Recent studies suggest that depression during pregnancy, physical abuse, and a migrant status were all predictors of:postpartum depression.
Klinefelter syndrome affects:only males.
Which of the following organs or systems develops FIRST in prenatal development?Spinal cord
Sylvia is almost nine months pregnant and very close to her delivery date. The doctors have found that she has an active case of genital herpes. Which of the following is the best course of action to prevent Sylvia’s baby from contracting the disease?Perform a cesarean section
Mary and Jim are expecting a child, and prenatal diagnostic procedures have confirmed that the fetus has _____, a neural tube disorder that causes brain and spine abnormalities. Their physician has explained that this gene-linked abnormality could be treated with corrective surgery at birth, orthopedic devices, and physical or medical therapy.spina bifida
Naveen is entering the third stage of childbirth, also known as the _____ stage.afterbirth
Which maternal age group has increased risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and fetal death?Thirty-five years and older
In human beings, by the end of meiosis, each egg or sperm has _____ chromosomes.23 unpaired
When children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world, they shift from one stage of thought to the next. For example, experiencing conflict with peers may lead to an attempt to reduce conflict. The mechanism through which this shift occurs is called:equilibration
Recent research supports the notion that _____ are the easiest words to learn.nouns
By the second birthday, a toddler’s brain is about _____ percent of its adult weight.75
Which of the following is a requirement of joint attention?An ability to track another’s behavior
The fiber that carries signals away from the neuron’s cell body is called a(n):axon
Amanda is 6 days old. Which of the following statements about Amanda’s hearing is true?Amanda is more able to hear high-pitched sounds than low-pitched sounds.
The portion farthest from the spinal cord is known as the:forebrain
When two individuals focus on the same object or event, it constitutes:joint attention
In which of the following circumstances should the mother NOT breast feed her baby?If she has AIDS
If we were concerned with speed of electronic signals, which of the following would help information travel faster?Myelination
According to Piaget’s theory, two processes underlie children’s cognitive construction of the world:organization and adaptation.
A recent television documentary concluded that, from birth, girls are more nurturing than are boys. You agree with this because you believe nurturing is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations, because females needed to be more nurturing to aid the survival of the species. Your view reflects the _____ perspective of development.ethological
The _____ involves the culture in which individuals live.macrosystem
The belief that no single theory of development is adequate to explain the rich complexity of life-span development reflects the _____ theoretical orientation.eclectic
“You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.” This old saying refutes Paul Baltes’ life-span perspective that views development as being:plastic
The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:lifelong
Mary is 3 years old and in preschool. Identify the development period that Mary is currently in.Early childhood
Dr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of _____ in understanding development.conscious thoughts
The _____ consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context.exosystem
The concept of discontinuity is characterized by:qualitative change.
According to Mary Ainsworth, a(n) _____ infant avoids the mother or is ambivalent toward her, fears strangers, and is upset by minor, everyday separations.insecurely attached
According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, what is the time period of phase 2?From 2 to 7 months
Emotions are influenced by both _____ foundations and by a person’s experiences.biological
Jeremy is a securely attached infant; Jason is classified as an insecure infant. Which of the following statements about later functioning for these children is true?Jeremy is more likely than Jason to have high self-confidence.
Infant Angela is frustrated. Her ability to wait longer to express her anger and possibly engage in a self-regulatory strategy like distraction will depend on:her effortful control.
_____ is an emotion that occurs for the first time in infants at some point in the second half of the first year or during the second year of life.Pride
A study of four different cultures found, similarly, that separation protest peaked at about13 to 15 months.
In the game peek-a-boo, the mother initially covers the baby. Then she removes the cover and registers “surprise” at the infant’s reappearance. This is an example of:scaffolding
Infants show _____ when they are in familiar settings.less stranger anxiety