AP Psychology, Chapter 7, Quizzes 1 & 2

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is aCR
Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior.cognitive processes
For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.variable-ratio
Months after she was beaten up by a robber, Courtney’s heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney’s anxiety.conditioned stimulus
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained bybiological predispositions
When Evie saw that her classmates got the teacher’s attention after asking questions in class, Evie started asking questions in class. This best illustrates the impact ofvicarious reinforcement
After being bitten by his neighbor’s dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process ofdiscrimination
A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________.Conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforce.
Some teachers have reduced the disruptive classroom behavior of students by imposing a time-out following disruptive behavior. In this case, the time-out is apunishment
Like European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis, civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents whomodeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern
If you have a “frightening experience” immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustratesclassical conditioning
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustratesoperant conditioning
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n)unconditioned stimulus
Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car’s irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value ofnegative reinforcement
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior?Albert Bandura
A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustratespartial reinforcement
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was theCR
An empathic husband who sees his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. According to many researchers, this best illustrates the functioning ofmirror neurons
In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known asshaping
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)conditioned stimulus
An organism’s ability to mentally anticipate that a US will follow a CS is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspectivecognitive
Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred toperceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe
Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant respondingdecreases; increases
Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates thelaw of effect
During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin’s behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedulefixed-interval
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcementfixed-ratio
Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustratesspontaneous recovery
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcerconditioned
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustratesassociative learning
Rats most easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments withnovel tastes
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is aUR
If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustratesobservational learning
A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Kim-Li still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustratesgeneralization
John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science ofobservable behavior
The first time that Liza heard the loud sound of her father’s bass drum, she responded with fear. The fear response is most clearly an example ofrespondent behavior