52 psyph

Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most
likely to be treated with
a.meta-analysis.
b.psychotherapy.
c.aversive conditioning.
d.psychoanalysis.
b
The treatment of serious psychological disorders with prescribed medications or medical
procedures that directly influence the nervous system is called
a.systematic desensitization.
b.cognitive-behavioral therapy.
c.psychodynamic therapy.
d.biomedical therapy
d
Which of the following best illustrates a form of psychotherapy?
a.systematic desensitization
b.electroconvulsive therapy
c.psychosurgery
d.rTMS
a
A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who
a.prescribes the use of drugs as part of psychotherapy.
b.emphasizes that active listening is the major technique in all effective
therapies.
c.prefers to engage in therapy in a group setting.
d.uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches
d
Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to
treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on
occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne’s therapeutic approach
would best be described as
a.biomedical.
b.psychoanalytic.
c.behavioral.
d.eclectic
d
The first psychological therapy was introduced by
a.Joseph Wolpe.
b.Sigmund Freud.
c.Aaron Beck.
d.Carl Rogers.
b
Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim
of
a.cognitive therapies.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.light exposure therapy.
d.psychoanalysis.
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d
Mr. Choi’s therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings
of love and hate for his parents. The therapist’s goal best reflects a primary aim of
a.client-centered therapy.
b.cognitive therapy.
c.psychoanalysis.
d.systematic desensitization.
c
Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult’s
psychological disorder by exploring that person’s childhood experiences?
a.a psychoanalyst
b.a behavior therapist
c.a humanistic therapist
d.a cognitive therapist
a
A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is
a.stress inoculation training.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.active listening.
d.free association.
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d
When Molly told her therapist about her frightening car accident, the therapist instructed
her to close her eyes and verbalize any further thoughts stimulated by this experience,
even if they were scary or embarrassing. The therapist was making use of a technique
known as
a.active listening.
b.transference.
c.systematic desensitization.
d.free association.
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d
According to psychoanalysts, resistance refers to the
a. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships.
b.blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy.
c.replacement of a genuine concern for others with self-centeredness.
d.conversion of psychological conflicts into physical and behavioral disorders.
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b
Who would be most likely to expect that patients are often motivated to resist retelling a
recent dream?
a.a humanistic therapist
b.a psychoanalyst
c.a behavior therapist
d.a cognitive therapist
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b
During psychotherapy, Leon would begin to stutter whenever he began discussing
personally sensitive thoughts. Sigmund Freud would have been likely to interpret this
stuttering as
a. neurogenesis.
b.tardive dyskinesia.
c.a placebo effect.
d.resistance.
d
An important component of psychoanalysis is
a.active listening.
b.dream analysis.
c.spontaneous recovery.
d.systematic desensitization.
b
Transference refers to a client’s
a.conversion of psychological conflicts into physical and behavioral disorders.
b.expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.
c.replacement of self-centeredness with a genuine concern for others.
d.translation of threatening dream content into nonthreatening images.
b
Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of
the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of
a.unconditional positive regard.
b.the placebo effect.
c.transference.
d.free association.
c
Psychoanalysts are most likely to view patient transference as
a. a symptom of depression.
b.a sign of healthy personality development.
c.a potential aid to the patient in developing insight.
d.evidence that no further therapy is needed.
c
Which form of therapy has been criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be
proven or disproven?
a. client-centered therapy
b.psychoanalysis
c.cognitive-behavioral therapy
d.systematic desensitization
b
Psychoanalysts would be most likely to discourage patients from
a. experiencing strong positive or negative feelings for their therapist.
b.discontinuing psychotherapy whenever they felt it was no longer necessary.
c.talking about anxiety-arousing material during therapy.
d.taking antianxiety drugs during the course of psychotherapy
b
In the United States, managed health care has limited the number of psychotherapy
sessions that may be covered by insurance. This is particularly likely to discourage the
widespread practice of
a.virtual reality exposure therapy.
b.behavior modification.
c.cognitive therapies.
d.psychoanalysis.
d
Psychodynamic therapy is ________ than traditional psychoanalysis.
a. less effective
b.briefer
c.more expensive
d.less commonly used
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Multiple Choice 0 p
a
Psychodynamic therapies try to understand patients’ current symptoms by focusing on
recurring patterns in their
a.interpersonal relationships.
b.sexual disorders.
c.eating habits and drug use.
d.self-blaming explanations.
a
Therapist Jonathan Shedler helped a patient to become aware of his adversarial stance
in his relationships and to recognize that this adversarial stance had roots in the attacks
he once experienced from his alcohol-dependent father. The therapist’s efforts best
illustrate
Answer stress inoculation training.
psychodynamic therapy.
systematic desensitization.
unconditional positive regard.
b
Nate’s past relationships with his mother, his former wife, and his previous employer
have been characterized by common patterns of resentment and emotional detachment.
Helping Nate gain insight into these recurring relationship patterns would be of greatest
concern to a
a. behavior therapist.
b.biomedical therapist.
c.psychodynamic therapist.
d.humanistic therapist.
c
Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how
to resolve disagreements with their friends?
a.systematic desensitization
b.interpersonal psychotherapy
c.humanistic therapy
d.cognitive therapy
b
Insight therapies aim to improve psychological functioning by
a.discouraging people from using antidepressant drugs.
b.using progressive relaxation to reduce anxiety.
c.increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
d.using personality tests to accurately diagnose the person’s difficulties.
c
Unlike psychodynamic therapists, humanistic therapists tend to focus on the ________
more than the ________.
a. present; future
b.past; present
c.present; past
d.past; future
c
Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to
a.focus more on other people’s feelings than on their own.
b.adapt more readily to social norms and expectations.
c.imitate the behavior of others who are happy and successful.
d.take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions
d
Instead of focusing on unconscious and repressed thoughts and impulses, ________
therapies focus on conscious thoughts and self-perceptions.
a.behavior
b.humanistic
c.biomedical
d.psychodynamic
b
Which therapeutic approach relies most heavily on patients’ discovering their own ways
of effectively dealing with their difficulties?
a.psychoanalysis
b.cognitive therapy
c.systematic desensitization
d.client-centered therapy
d
Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of
therapy.
a.clearly communicate their diagnosis of a client’s disorder
b.genuinely express their own true feelings
c.explain the immediate causes of a client’s difficulties
d.identify a hierarchy of the client’s anxiety-arousing experiences
b
Empathic understanding of the patient’s subjective experiences is a major goal of a
a. psychoanalyst.
b.biomedical therapist.
c.client-centered therapist.
d.behavior therapist.
c
Restating and clarifying what another person says is central to
a. systematic desensitization.
b.free association.
c.spontaneous recovery.
d.active listening.
d
An important feature of client-centered therapy is
a.systematic desensitization.
b.transference.
c.free association.
d.active listening.
d
When Murli told his therapist, “I came to see what you could do for me,” the therapist
responded, “It sounds like you’re feeling you need some help. Am I right?” The
therapist’s response illustrates the technique of
a.transference.
b.free association.
c.active listening.
d.systematic desensitization
c
During a marriage counseling session, the therapist suggests to Mr. and Mrs. Gallo that
they each restate their spouse’s comments before making their own. The therapist was
applying a technique most closely associated with
a.psychoanalysis.
b.cognitive-behavioral therapy.
c.systematic desensitization.
d.client-centered therapy.
Add
d
Carl Rogers referred to a caring, nonjudgmental attitude as
a.active listening.
b.free association.
c.unconditional positive regard.
d.positive reinforcement.
c
The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by
________ therapists.
a. cognitive
b.psychoanalytic
c.behavior
d.humanistic
c
Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the
development of
a.behavior therapy.
b.humanistic therapy.
c.psychodynamic therapy.
d.cognitive therapy
a
In classical conditioning therapies, maladaptive symptoms are usually considered to be
a.unconditioned stimuli.
b.conditioned stimuli.
c.unconditioned responses.
d.conditioned responses.
d
In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when
wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of
a.biomedical therapy.
b.cognitive therapy.
c.behavior therapy.
d.humanistic therapy.
c
A procedure that trains people to make new responses to stimuli that currently trigger
unwanted responses is called
a. light exposure therapy.
b.transference.
c.counterconditioning.
d.unconditional positive regard
c
Two counterconditioning techniques for replacing unwanted responses are
a.systematic desensitization and free association.
b.spontaneous recovery and stress inoculation training.
c.unconditional positive regard and transference.
d.aversive conditioning and exposure therapy
d
Benny’s mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3-year-old his favorite
candy as soon as they board the boat. The mother’s strategy best illustrates
a. counter conditioning.
b.cognitive therapy.
c.transference.
d.the placebo effect
a
According to Mary Cover Jones, 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when one was
repeatedly presented while he was eating his midafternoon snack. This episode best
illustrated the potential usefulness of
a.cognitive therapy.
b.exposure therapies.
c.free association.
d.the placebo effect.
b
Which of the following is a type of exposure therapy?
a.family therapy
b.stress inoculation training
c.systematic desensitization
d. topic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
c
Systematic desensitization is a form of ________, which is a type of ________.
a. transference; interpersonal psychotherapy
b.stress inoculation training; biomedical therapy
c.free association; cognitive therapy
d.counterconditioning; behavior therapy
d
A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.
a.systematic desensitization
b.electroconvulsive therapy
c.free association
d.drug therapy
a
Systematic desensitization involves
a. depriving a client access to an addictive drug.
b.associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
c.replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative
response.
d.associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli
d
Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state
of comfort is called ________ relaxation.
a.simulated
b.systematic
c.progressive
d.unconditional
c
Jonathan is afraid to ask a girl for a date, so his therapist instructs him to relax and
simply imagine he is reaching for his cell phone and then calling a potential date. The
therapist’s technique best illustrates the process of
a.interpersonal therapy.
b.free association.
c.cognitive therapy.
d.systematic desensitization.
d
Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety
when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme
anxiety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is
experienced while waiting for a professor to hand out tests. During the process of
systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to
imagine
a.answering questions on a college test.
b.waiting for a professor to hand out tests.
c.studying for a test.
d.registering for a college course.
Add
d
Question
Which of the following techniques have behavior therapists used to help people
overcome a fear of flying?
a.aversive conditioning
b.transference
c.virtual reality exposure therapy
d.the double-blind procedure
Add
c
Virtual reality exposure therapy is a form of
a.stress inoculation training.
b.aversive conditioning.
c.systematic desensitization.
d.transference.
c
In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant
experiences?
a. electroconvulsive therapy
b.systematic desensitization
c.cognitive therapy
d.aversive conditioning
d
In treating alcohol dependence, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a
nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
a. operant conditioning.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.aversive conditioning.
d.transference.
Add
c
To help Claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time
she smokes a cigarette. The therapist is using
a.aversive conditioning.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.electroconvulsive therapy.
d.rTMS.
a
Connor is constantly chewing tobacco. To reduce his appetite for this product, a behavior
therapist would most likely use
a. free association.
b.a double-blind procedure.
c.systematic desensitization.
d.aversive conditioning.
d
In a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced
with a nausea-producing drug. Yet, outside the therapist’s office the client knows he or
she can eat those foods without fear of nausea. This awareness contributes to the
limited effectiveness of
a. spontaneous recovery.
b.aversive conditioning.
c.client-centered therapy.
d.the double-blind procedure.
b
Therapists practice ________ by using positive reinforcers to reward closer and closer
approximations of a desired behavior.
a.free association
b.progressive relaxation
c.behavior modification
d.unconditional positive regard
c
Which of the following is the best description of behavior modification?
a.People are helped to identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.
b.People’s actions are influenced by controlling the consequences of those
actions.
c.What a client says during the course of therapy is repeated or rephrased.
d.Attention is focused on patients’ positive and negative feelings toward their
therapists.
b
Praising socially withdrawn children when they make eye contact with others and
ignoring them after a temper tantrum best illustrates an application of
a.cognitive therapy.
b.rational-emotive behavior therapy.
c.operant conditioning.
d.unconditional positive regard.
c
Mrs. Coleman is a withdrawn schizophrenia patient. To help her become more socially
active, institutional staff members give her small plastic cards whenever she talks to
someone. She is allowed to exchange these cards for candy and cigarettes. Staff
members are making use of
a.active listening.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.a token economy.
d.classical conditioning.
Add
c
Several years after his wife’s death, Mr. Stattler remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt
and sadness. To reduce Mr. Stattler’s depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him
to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent his wife’s death. The therapist’s
approach is most representative of
a.systematic desensitization.
b.psychodynamic therapy.
c.cognitive therapy.
d.client-centered therap
c
“For you to think you are worthless because your boyfriend sometimes criticizes you is
absurd! I know a lot of highly worthy people who often receive criticisms.” This statement
would most likely be made to a patient by a
a.rational-emotive behavior therapist.
b.psychodynamic therapist.
c.client-centered therapist
a
Dylan is a second-year undergraduate who feels so incompetent that he believes his life
is worthless and hopeless. Dylan would profit the most from
a. Jones’ counterconditioning.
b.Wolpe’s systematic desensitization.
c.Beck’s cognitive therapy.
d.Shapiro’s EMDR.
Add
As a therapist, Dr. Cioffi often uses systematic desensitization. She also considers
active listening to be an invaluable therapeutic tool, and she frequently makes use of
free association. Dr. Cioffi’s therapeutic approach would best be described as

a.psychoanalytic.
b.client-centered.
c.behavioral.
d.eclectic.

d
Sheena’s therapist tells her to relax, close her eyes, and state aloud whatever comes to
mind no matter how trivial or absurd it seems. The therapist is using a technique that is
central to
a. client-centered therapy.
b.psychoanalysis.
c.cognitive therapy.
d.systematic desensitization.
b
Just as Austin began telling his therapist about a painful childhood experience, he
complained of a headache and abruptly ended the session. A psychoanalyst would
most likely suggest that Austin’s behavior is an a.resistance.
b.transference.
c.counterconditioning.
d.tardive dyskinesia.
Mr. Phillips has recently begun to express feelings of hostility and resentment toward his
therapist, who is consistently friendly, caring, and helpful. A psychoanalyst would most
likely consider Mr. Phillips’s hostility to be an example of
a.Answer transference.
b.the placebo effect.
c.counter conditioning.
d.regression toward the mean.
a
Psychoanalysts are most likely to
a.attend to patients’ positive and negative feelings toward their therapists.
b.associate a patient’s undesirable behavior with unpleasant experiences.
c.repeat or rephrase what a patient says during the course of therapy.
d.help patients identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences
a
Therapist David Shapiro helped a patient to realize that he couldn’t say “I love you” to
his wife because it would feel soft and unmanly. The therapist’s efforts best illustrate
a. exposure therapy.
b.stress-inoculation training.
c.psychodynamic therapy.
d.rational-emotive behavior therapy.
c
As a psychotherapist, Dr. Buist does not analyze people’s motives or diagnose the
nature of their difficulties because he believes that they are in the best position to
diagnose and solve their own problems. Dr. Buist’s position is most characteristic of
________ therapy.
a. cognitive
b.psychoanalytic
c.operant conditioning
d.client-centered
d
Cindy suggested that her nail biting might be a symptom of unconscious resentment
toward her parents. Her therapist chuckled and said, “No, Cindy, your problem isn’t
unconscious hostility; your problem is nail biting.” Cindy’s therapist sounds most like a
________ therapist.
a. behavior
b.humanistic
c.cognitive
d.psychodynamic
a
O. H. Mowrer trained children to discontinue bed-wetting by arranging for an alarm to
sound each time they wet their beds. This technique best illustrates a therapeutic
application of
a.systematic desensitization.
b.cognitive-behavioral therapy.
c.the placebo effect.
d.classical conditioning.
d
To reduce his daughter’s fear of the dark, Mr. Chew would hug and gently rock her
immediately after turning off the lights at bedtime. Mr. Chew’s strategy best illustrates
the technique of
a.stress inoculation training.
b.light exposure therapy.
c.free association.
d.counterconditioning.
d
To help Thor overcome his fear of giving public speeches, his therapist instructs him to
relax and then to imagine speaking to a group of four people. The therapist is using
a.client-centered therapy.
b.cognitive therapy.
c.systematic desensitization.
d.aversive conditioning.
c
Mr. Vogt is terribly afraid of being alone in his own house at night. To reduce this fear, a
behavior therapist would most likely use
a. the double-blind procedure.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.a token economy.
d.aversive conditioning.
Whenever 2-year-old Calista runs into the street in front of her house, her mother
immediately spanks her. The mother’s technique most closely resembles the procedure
known as
a.systematic desensitization.
b.electroconvulsive therapy.
c.aversive conditioning.
d.stress inoculation training.
c
Mrs. Laiti is a compulsive gambler. To reduce her attraction to this self-defeating activity,
a behavior therapist would most likely use
a. EMDR.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.a token economy.
d.aversive conditioning.
d
Mr. Quinones, a fifth-grade teacher, gives a blue plastic star to each student who
achieves a high score on a math or spelling test. At the end of the semester, students
can exchange their stars for prizes. Mr. Quinones’ strategy illustrates an application of
a.transference.
b.operant conditioning.
c.systematic desensitization.
d.counterconditioning.
b
Although Ethan is actually doing very well in college, he feels depressed and
academically incompetent. His therapist has instructed him to explain in writing how his
good grades resulted from his own hard work and personal abilities. This therapeutic
procedure is most characteristic of ________ therapy.
a. behavior
b.cognitive
c.psychodynamic
d.humanistic
Natasha claimed that her failure to get straight A’s in college meant she was
incompetent. Her therapist quickly challenged this assertion, commenting, “By your
strange calculations, well over 90 percent of all college students are incompetent!” The
therapist’s response was most typical of a(n)
a.behavior therapist.
b.virtual reality exposure therapist.
c.humanistic therapist.
d.psychodynamic therapist.
a
Aaron Beck has used gentle questioning intended to reveal depressed clients’ irrational
thinking. His therapeutic approach best illustrates
a. unconditional positive regard.
b.systematic desensitization.
c.cognitive therapy.
d.rTMS.
c
Jenna is afraid of speaking to a large audience. Her therapist suggests that prior to a
speaking engagement she should reassure herself with comments like, “Cheer up,
Jenna. You know what you’re talking about and your topic is really interesting!” This
approach to reducing Jenna’s fear most clearly illustrates
a.aversive conditioning.
b.client-centered therapy.
c.systematic desensitization.
d.stress inoculation training.
d
Dr. Jackson reinforces depressed patients for their participation in pleasant activities
and trains them to take increasingly more credit for the rewards they gain from engaging
in those activities. Dr. Jackson’s treatment approach best illustrates
a.exposure therapy.
b.client-centered therapy.
c.psychodynamic therapy.
d.cognitive-behavioral therapy.
d
To help Mrs. Otsuki lose weight, her therapist first attempted to assess whether her
weight loss might be personally threatening to her husband. The therapist’s concern is
most characteristic of a
a. biomedical therapist.
b.client-centered therapist.
c.family therapist.
d.psychodynamic therapist
c