Chapter 17 Methods of Persuasion

____________ is the audience’s perception of how believable a speaker is.Credibility
A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience regards the speaker’scompetence and character.
____________ is the name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.Ethos
Strong evidence canenhance a speaker’s credibility, increase both the immediate and long-term persuasiveness of a speech, and help inoculate listeners against counterpersuasion.
true/false: No matter what kind of evidence you employ, it will be more persuasive if you state it in specific rather than general terms.true
true/false: Evidence is more likely to be persuasive if it is familiar to the audience.false, Feedback: Evidence is more likely to be persuasive if it is new to the audience. Review “Tips for Using Evidence.”
true/false: Pathos is the word Aristotle used to refer to a speaker’s logical appeal.false, Feedback: Aristotle used the word logos to refer to a speaker’s logical appeal. He used pathos to refer to emotional appeal. Review “Tips for Using Evidence.”
What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Over the past few years, there have been a number of cases of academic fraud in men’s college basketball programs. We can conclude, therefore, that academic fraud is a widespread problem in men’s college basketball.
reasoning from specific instances
Feedback: Because it moves from particular facts to a general conclusion, this statement is an example of reasoning from specific instances. Review “Reasoning from Specific Instances.”
What error in reasoning is exemplified in the following statement?
I watched a Taiwanese film in class last week, and it was extremely violent. When I mentioned this to my friend, she said that she, too, had seen a violent Taiwanese film. Apparently all Taiwanese films are violent.
hasty generalization
Feedback: This statement is an example of hasty generalization because it jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. Review “Reasoning from Specific Instances.”
true/false: Reasoning from principle involves moving from a specific principle to a general conclusion.false, Feedback: Reasoning from principle involves moving from a general principle to a specific conclusion. Review “Reasoning from Principle.”
What error in reasoning is exemplified in the following statement?
I usually eat spaghetti for dinner the day before an exam, but I ran out of spaghetti the night before the calculus final. That’s why I got a C.
false cause
Feedback: This statement is an example of the error of false cause, in which the speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.
True/Fale: The fallacy of false cause is often known by its Latin name, post hoc, ergo propter hoc.true, Feedback: The fallacy of false cause is often known by its Latin name, post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning “after this, therefore because of this.”
What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Because the crime-reduction policy I propose has worked successfully in New York, Houston, and New Orleans, we can be confident that it will work here as well.
analogical reasoning
Feedback: Because this statement infers that what is true for crime-reduction programs in New York, Houston, and New Orleans is also true for the case at hand, it is an example of analogical reasoning.
According to your textbook, the most important question to ask when assessing analogical reasoning is whetherthe two cases being compared are essentially alike.
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Either we install metal detectors in the city schools or we just let the problem of school violence continue to grow.
either-or
Feedback: Because it forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist, this statement commits the either-or fallacy. Review “Fallacies.”
The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can we take my opponent’s proposed education bill seriously? After all, he flunked out of high school.
ad hominem
Feedback: Because this statement attacks the speaker’s opponent personally, rather than dealing with the merits of his or her education bill, it commits the ad hominem fallacy. Review “Fallacies.”
The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
As we have seen, the trend is for companies to reduce long-term research and development costs in order to increase short-term profits. Since so many companies are doing this, it must make good business sense.
bandwagon
Feedback: The bandwagon fallacy assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can we be so concerned about ethics in political campaigns when there are serious problems in the long-term stability of Social Security?
red herring
Feedback: Because this statement introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion, it is an example of the red herring fallacy.
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of which type of fallacy?
Once we accept money from soft-drink companies for exclusive rights to sell their products in our high schools, it won’t be long until businesses are deciding what courses should be taught and what teachers should be hired.
slippery slope
Feedback: Because this statement assumes, without evidence, that taking the first step will lead inevitably to a series of disastrous later steps, it commits the slippery slope fallacy. Review “Fallacies.”
true/false: Emotional appeal is often necessary when a speaker is trying to move an audience to action.True
true/false: In persuasive speaking, it is usually appropriate to substitute emotional appeals for evidence and reasoning.false, Feedback: Even when using emotional appeals, you should build your persuasive speech on a firm foundation of facts and logic. Review “Ethics and Emotional Appeal.”
Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to generate emotional appeal in a persuasive speech?
A) Use more denotative language to create an emotional response.
B) Let emotional appeal grow naturally out of the speech content.
C) Modify your body language to give your ideas emotional impact.
B) Let emotional appeal grow naturally out of the speech content.
Identify and define the three types of credibility discussed in your textbook.initial, derived, and terminal. Initial credibility is the credibility of the speaker before she or he starts to speak. Derived credibility is produced by everything the speaker says during the speech itself. Terminal credibility is the credibility of the speaker at the end of the speech.
What are three strategies discussed in your textbook for generating emotional appeal in a persuasive speech?Use emotional language.
Develop vivid examples.
Speak with sincerity and conviction.
define ethosthe name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility
define credibilitythe audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic
define initial credibilitythe credibility of a speaker before he or she starts to speak
define derived credibilitythe credibility of a speaker produced by everything he or she says and does during the speech
define terminal credibilitythe credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech
define creating common grounda technique in which a speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience
define evidencesupporting materials used to prove or disprove something
define logosthe name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker.
the two major elements of logos areevidence and reasoning
define reasoningthe process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence
define reasoning from specific instancesreasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion
define hasty generalizationan error in reasoning from specific instances, in which a speaker jumps so a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence
define reasoning from principlereasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion
define causal reasoningreasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects
define false causean error in causal reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.
false cause error is also known by its Latin name ____, meaning ___post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning “after this,” therefore because of this
define analogical reasoningreasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second
define invalid analogyan analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
define fallacyan error in reasoning
define red herringa fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
define ad hominena fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute
define either-ora fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
define bandwagona fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desireable
define slippery slopea fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
define pathosthe name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal