3.1 Respiratory System, Lecture Questions

Which of the following is NOT a respiratory process performed by the respiratory system?
pulmonary ventilation;
external respiration;
transport of respiratory gases
respiration
TRANSPORT OF RESPIRATORY GASES;
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?cartilage rings
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
T OR F: The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.TRUE
T OR F: The epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing.FALSE
Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Ventilation is ________.the movement of air into and out of the lungs
This portion of the upper respiratory system serves only as an air passageway.nasopharynx
Speech occurs when air is moved through this passageway between the true vocal cords.glottis
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.Boyle’s Law
The trachea divides into ________ bronchi that lead to the lungs.2
The lungs lie primarily ________ to the heart.lateral
What kind of epithelium lines the trachea?pseudostratified ciliated columnar
The primary bronchi enter the lungs at an area called the ________.hilum of the lung.
The right lung has superior, middle, and inferior lobes. Which lobe is missing on the left side?middle
What is the correct order of passageways, from proximal to distal?terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct
The portion of the serous membrane that covers and adheres to the lung is called the ________.visceral pleura
The functions of the nasal cavity include ________.warming, moistening, and filtering the air
The larynx ________.contains the apparatus for speech
The wall of the trachea is composed of several tissues. Which is unique to the trachea?cartilage rings
The pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium of the trachea ________.produces mucus to trap dust particles, bacteria, and other debris; sweeps the mucus toward the throat, where it can be expelled or swallowed; and lines the airway that is held open by C-shaped cartilaginous rings
Which lobes of the lungs are found in the apex?superior
The medial surface of the left lung has a cavity that accommodates the contents of the mediastinum. It is called the ________.cardiac notch
A respiratory bronchiole can be distinguished from a terminal bronchiole by ________.the alveoli that first appear on the respiratory bronchioles
The respiratory membrane includes the ________.capillary and alveolar walls and their fused basal laminae
Select the pair below that is a correct match of the structure and zone.conducting zone; trachea
The inflated lungs of a fresh pluck ________.feel like a soft sponge
T OR F: The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell.TRUE
T OR F: The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue).TRUE
T OR F: Valsalva’s maneuver involves closing off the glottis (preventing expiration) while contracting the muscles of expiration, causing an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.TRUE
T OR F: Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.TRUE
T OR F: Tracheal obstruction is life threatening.TRUE
T OR F: The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall.TRUE
T OR F: Nasal conchae mainly work on inhalation to warm and moisten air. They serve minor functions for exhalation.FALSE
T OR F: Under certain conditions, the vocal folds act as a sphincter that prevents air passage.TRUE
The loudness of a person’s voice depends on the ________.force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.secrete surfactant
Select the correct statement about the pharynxThe auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
The larynx contains ________.the thyroid cartilage
Which of the following is not found on the right lung?CARDIAC NOTCH;
horizontal fissure;
middle lobe;
oblique fissure
Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?allows the lungs to inflate and deflate without friction;
AIDS IN BLOOD FLOW TO AND FROM THE HEART BECAUSE THE HEART SITS BETWEEN THE LUNG;
helps limit the spread of local infections;
helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?alveoli
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.cleansing the air;
AS THE INITIATOR OF THE COUGH REFLEX;
warming and humidifying the air;
as a passageway for air movement
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Type II alveolar cells secrete ________.surfactant
The cartilaginous flap that closes the trachea during swallowing is called the ________.epiglottis
The archway in the back of the throat is called the ________.fauces
The trachea is lined with ________ epithelium.ciliated pseudostratified columnar
Terminal bronchioles are lined with ________ epithelium.cuboidal
Which of the following represents all of the processes involved in respiration in the correct order?Pulmonary ventilation; External respiration; Transport of respiratory gases; Internal respiration
Which of the following is not a function of the nasal conchae and mucosa?
a. Filter the air entering the nasal cavity;
b. Extract heat and moisture from the air leaving the nasal cavity;
C. Destroy pathogens entering the nasopharynx
D. Heat and moisten the air entering the nasal cavity
DESTROY PATHOGENS ENTERING THE NASOPHARYNX;
Which of the following respiratory structures is more commonly known as the “throat”?pharynx
Which of the following are the two main functions of the larynx.To provide a patent airway; to act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels.
The _________________ is also known as the “guardian of the airways”.epiglottis
The smallest subdivisions of the lung visible with the naked eye are the _____________, which appear to be connected by black carbon in smokers.lobules
Systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs is delivered by the ____________, and the ____________ provide oxygenated systemic blood to lung tissue.pulmonary arteries; bronchial arteries
________, the difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures, prevents the lungs from collapsing.Transpulmonary pressure
Quiet inspiration is ____________, and quiet expiration is ______________.active process; passive process
Which of the following processes are unique to the respiratory system?pulmonary ventilation; external respiration
Which parts of the respiratory system function as the main sites of gas exchange?alveoli
Jane had been suffering through a severe cold and was complaining of a frontal headache and a dull, aching pain at the side of her face. What regions are likely to become sites of secondary infection following nasal infection?the paranasal sinusus
While dining out in a restaurant, a man suddenly chokes on a piece of meat. The waitress is also a student nurse and comes to the man’s aid. She asks him if he can talk. The man responds by shaking his head no and grabbing at his neck. What is the significance of the man’s inability to talk?As the man is unable to speak, this indicates that he is choking on a piece of food that suddenly closed off the glottis in the larynx.
During inhalation,the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?alveoli
Which statement is correct?In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
After blood becomes oxygenated,it returns to the heart and is then pumped to the body cells.
Hemoglobinis a protein that can bind 4 molecules of oxygen.
PATH OF AIR1.Air enters through the nose or mouth
2.Air travels down the trachea and then enters the bronchi
3.Air travels down smaller and smaller bronchioles
4.Air reaches small sacs called alveoli
OXYGEN TRANSPORT1.Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into surrounding capillaries
2.Oxygen enters a RBC
3.Oxygen binds to a molecule of hemoglobin
4.Oxygen is carried through blood vessels to a capillary
5.Oxygen diffuses from the blood to the body’s tissues
KEY EVENTS IN GAS EXCHANGE1.Breathing moves air in and out of lungs
2.Oxygen diffuses from alveoli in the lungs into capillaries
3. Oxygen enters RBCs, where it binds to protein hemoglobin
4.Oxygen diffuses from the blood to the body’s tissues, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues to the blood
5.Carbon dioxide leaves the body when we exhale
CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT1.Carbon dioxide is released from the mitochondria
2.Carbon dioxide diffuses into a capillary
3.Carbon dioxide is carried to the lungs
4.Carbon dioxide diffuses into an alveolus
5.Air exits through nose or mouth
T OR F: Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli.TRUE
T OR F: During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.FALSE
T OR F: The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.TRUE
T OR F: The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.FALSE
T OR F: Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation.TRUE
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs isgreater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli;
Proportionally, smooth muscle increases uniformly;
RESISTANCE TO AIR FLOW INCREASES DUE TO THE INCREASE IN CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER;
Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles
Which of the following determines lung compliance?alveolar surface tension
Tidal volume is air ________.exchanged during normal breathing
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.vidal capacity
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.inspiratory reserve
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
Inspiratory capacity is ________.the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
Which of the following is not possible?Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance;
The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli;
Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow;
PRESSURE GRADIENT EQUALS GAS FLOW OVER RESISTANCE
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.
Which form of hypoxia reflects poor O2 delivery resulting from too few RBCs or from RBCs that contain abnormal or too little hemoglobin?Anemic Hypoxia
Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the least amount of CO2 transported in blood?dissolved in plasma
What is the driving force behind pulmonary ventilation?volume changes of the thoracic cavity
Which of the following is NOT a physical factor that influences pulmonary ventilation?airway resistance;
alveolar surface tension;
PARTIAL PRESSURE OF OXYGEN IN THE AIR;
lung compliance
What is the amount of air that can be exhaled with the greatest possible exhalation after the deepest inhalation called?vital capacity
Timothy has been having difficulty breathing since he had pneumonia last month. Recently he had severe pain in his chest and back, and his breathing was extremely irregular. The doctor at the emergency room told him that one of the lobes of his lung had collapsed. How could this happen?Timothy suffered atelectasis, most likely caused by the bronchiole becoming plugged following the pneumonia, then collapsing due to the alveoli absorbing all of the air.
While having a physical examination, a young male informed his doctor that at age 8 he had lobar pneumonia and pleurisy in his left lung. The physician decided to measure his VC. How would the doctor measure the VC?using a spirometer
T OR F: Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.TRUE
T OR F: Dalton’s law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.TRUE
The statement, “in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture” paraphrases ________.Dalton’s Law
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________..5-1 micrometer thick
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?BLOOD PH ADJUSTMANT;
external respiration;
internal respiration;
pulmonary ventilation
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?partial pressure gradient
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.diffusion
________ law is called the law of partial pressure.Dalton’s
________ law would apply to the amount of CO2 you could dissolve in a Pepsi.Henry’s
Which of the following is the most powerful respiratory stimulant?rising co2 levels
T OR F: The structures within the respiratory system’s conducting zone include the trachea and the paranasal sinuses.TRUE
What is ventilation-perfusion coupling?Matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillaries
After a long scuba diving session on a Caribbean reef, Carl boards a plane to Dallas. He begins to feel pain in his elbow on the flight back to Dallas. What is happening to him and why?Carl is experiencing the bends because a lot of gas was forced into his bloodstream during the dive, and there was not sufficient time to decompress before he boarded the plane; as the plane is not pressurized to sea level, this reduced the pressure holding the gases in suspension
T OR F: Changes in arterial pH can modify respiration rate and rhythm even when carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal.TRUE
T OR F: The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase.FALSE
T OR F: Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin.FALSE
T OR F: As carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more CO2 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ion to be generated (the Bohr effect).FALSE
T OR F: Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic.FALSE
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.too little oxygen in the atmosphere
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH;
CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood;
MORE CO2 DISSOLVES IN THE BLOOD PLASMA THAN IS CARRIED IN THE RBCS;
Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
Which of the following incorrectly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?as bicarbonate ion in plasma;
7-10% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma;
ATTACHED TO THE HEME PART OF HEMOGLOBIN;
20% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin
Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?partial pressure of oxygen;
partial pressure of carbon dioxide;
NUMBER OF RBCS;
temperature
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.
Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?temperature;
carbon dioxide;
BPG;
NITRIC OXIDE
Oxygen unloading in a RBC due to declining pH is called the ________.Bohr effect
T OR F: The alveoli are also known as alveolar sacs.FALSE
T OR F: Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.TRUE
Which of the following is the primary factor in oxygen attachment to, or release from, hemoglobin?partial pressure of oxygen
What is the primary form in which carbon dioxide is carried in blood?as a bicarbonate ion in plasma
__________ has a greater partial pressure in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli, so it diffuses into the __________.CO2; alveoli
Which gas law explains why there is as much CO2 exchanged between the alveoli and blood as there is O2 exchanged, despite the fact that the partial pressure difference is so much smaller for CO2?Henry’s Law
How would the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 change in an exercising muscle?The partial pressure of O2 would decrease, and the partial pressure of CO2 would increase.
Which way would O2 and CO2 diffuse during internal respiration?O2 would diffuse into the cells, and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.
Internal and external respiration depends on several factors. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in gas exchange?rate of blood flow through the tissue;
partial pressure of the gases;
THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF THE GAS;
available surface area
T OR F: The Hering-Breuer reflex is a potentially dangerous response that may cause overinflation of the lung.FALSE
T OR F: Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers.TRUE
T OR F: Apneustic breathing is characterized by prolonged inspirations.TRUE
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.increase in CO2
Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.the ventral respiratory group
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg;
arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention;
RISING BLOOD PRESSURE;
rising carbon dioxide levels
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.medulla; pons
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.voluntary corticol control
Gas emboli may occur because a ________.diver holds his breath upon ascent
Which center is located in the pons?pontine respirator group (PRG)
Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
The ________ regulates smoothing of transitions from inspiration to expiration.pontine respiratory group (PRG)
T OR F: Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that when a gas is in contact with a liquid, that gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure.FALSE
What determines the respiratory rhythm in the body?medullary respiratory centers
What is the most powerful respiratory stimulant in a healthy person?blood carbon dioxide level
How will the lungs compensate for an acute rise in the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood?respiratory rate will increase
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?psychological stimuli;
simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center;
DECREASE IN LACTIC ACID LEVELS;
proprioceptors
T OR F: In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree.FALSE
T OR F: Labored breathing is termed dyspnea.TRUE
Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?small cell carcinoma;
KAPOSI’S SARCOMA
squamous cell carcinoma;
adenocarcinoma
Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?emphysema
T OR F: Emphysema is distinguished by permanent shrinkage of the alveoli.FALSE
T OR F: Although lung cancer is difficult to cure, it is highly preventable.TRUE
A smoker sees his doctor because he has a persistent cough and is short of breath after very little exertion. What diagnosis will the doctor make, and what can the person expect in the short term if he does not quit smoking?The person is suffering from chronic bronchitis, which causes the dyspnea and coughing. If he does not stop smoking, he can expect frequent pulmonary infections, more coughing, progressively worse dyspnea.
A patient was admitted to the hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. His PO2 was 55 and PCO2 was 65. A new resident orders 54% oxygen via the venturi mask. One hour later, after the oxygen was placed, the nurse finds the patient with no respiration or pulse. She calls for a Code Blue and begins cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Why did the patient stop breathing?Oxygen dilates pulmonary arterioles, increasing perfusion and worsening an already poor ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In addition, oxygen drives more CO2 off of hemoglobin, dumping it into alveoli from which it cannot be removed.
Why is a patient with tuberculosis often noncompliant with treatment?Due to the time length of treatment, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better.
John has undergone surgery and has developed pneumonia. He also has a history of emphysema. Which assessment parameters would the nurse expect to find?Dyspnea, hypoxemia, use of accessory muscles to assist breathing, productive cough, and “crackle” sounds during breathing
Which of the following statements is incorrect?Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing;
The chest wall becomes more rigid with age;
RESPIRATORY RATE IS LOWEST IN NEWBORN INFANTS;
During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid.
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________.28 weeks
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.
________ is the most common lethal genetic disease in the United States.Cystic Fibrosis