A representational work of art ________.depicts objects or people so that we can recognize them
Examples of graphic art include:
a. posters
b. advertising
c. signage
d. social media
e. Each answer shown is correct
e. Each answer shown is correct
Katsushika Hokusai is said to have used a live chicken’s footprints in a painting that communicated ________.the sensations of a fall day by the river
Allan Houser’s work Reverie is representational because:it includes two shapes that we recognize as faces
Art is sometimes censored by the authorities because:
a. it offends people’s religious beliefs
b. its sexual content seems pornographic
c. it carries a political message that worries the authorities
d. its moral values seem improper
e.Each answer shown is correct
Each answer shown is correct
Which of the following statements is untrue?

a. the majority of artists who contributed to building medieval cathedrals are anonymous
b. Renaissance artists were often supported by workshops full of assistants
c. Katushika Hokusai carved and printed all of his artworks himself
d. Jeff Koons employs other artists to realize his ideas
e. None of the answers shown

c. Katushika Hokusai carved and printed all of his artworks himself
Western artists since the Renaissance have usually considered ______ to be the highest forms of art.c. sculpture and painting
Over the years, public opinion of the Watts Towers has varied, but people have never thought that:b. it is a perfect example of the Neoclassical style
What can we NOT conclude from a formal analysis of David Hockney’s Portrait of an Artist (Pool with Two Figures)?Correctb. the man in the red jacket is the artist’s ex-lover
Stolen art loses much of its value because:Correcte. lacking good title and proper provenance prevents its resale
Marc Quinn’s Self, a self-portrait made from frozen blood, is created in ________ scale.Correctc. life-sized
These huge 1,300-year-old South American drawings, which include an enormous image of a spider, were discovered in modern times by overflying commercial aircraft.Correctc. Nazca Lines
Vertical lines tend to communicate:Correcta. strength
This kind of shape is mathematically regular and precise.geometric
This artist would sometimes go for days without food or sleep in an attempt to explore the deep-rooted sources of creativity and truth.Correctc. André Masson
In the work The Connectors, the artist James Allen uses this kind of line to draw the viewer’s attention to the great height that faced the builders of the Empire State Building.Correcta. directional
Barbara Hepworth used line to plan and visualize her three-dimensional artwork. What kind of three-dimensional artwork did she produce?Correctc. sculpture
This artist used contrasting positive and negative shapes to create his “Obey” campaign, an expression of guerrilla marketing and street theater.Correctd. Shepard Fairey
Dashes and grids in The Devil Made Me Do It, by Sauerkids, are a good example of this kind of line.Correctc. implied
Line can be used as a tool to:
a. demarcate boundaries
b. imply direction
c. give a sense of surface
d. indicate movement
e. Each answer shown is correct
Correcte. Each answer shown is correct
Noma Bar’s illustration Gun Crime uses positive and negative shape to communicate:Correcte. the act of gun crime and its terrible result
This famous object is the largest carving in the world created from a single stone.the Sphinx
Frank Gehry’s design for the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, uses contrasts of:organic and geometric form
The human figure communicates the rich experience of humanity, and artists emulate this experience using this kind of form:organic
This element of art is used to describe the solidity of a form, such as that of the colossal Olmec heads.mass
There are two kinds of relief sculpture: a pronounced surface treatment called high relief, and a shallow surface low relief called ________.bas relief
Which of these is NOT a geometric form?leaf
Artists use this kind of texture if they want to contradict a viewer’s normal expectations of a textured surface.subversive
Which of these is a form?pyramid
A slick cold surface of a finely finished metal object, the rough-hewn splintery character of a broken branch, and the pebbly surface of a rocky beach are all examples of this element of art:texture
This element of art is used to describe the usable interior space of an architectural form.volume
The technique in which an artist creates a series of closely arranged parallel lines that is overlapped by another set of parallel strokes to create a sense of value is called:cross-hatching
These two values are at the extreme ends of a value and white
This type of perspective is used by computer- and video-game designers because it allows them to create depth using parallel diagonal lines.isometric
An artist can create an illusion of depth using only color by varying the:intensity
This kind of perspective is best used when the artist is confronted by a complex scene in which the viewpoint is not at ground level.multi-point
Artists intersperse value and texture to create a sense of:rhythm
Contemporary filmmakers use this effect to give the illusion of great depth, even when the scene is in a limited space.atmospheric perspective
Artists sometimes use this method of applying value to give a feeling of three-dimensionality.chiaroscuro
This Italian artist was the first to define a formal system of linear perspective.Brunelleschi
The method whereby rules of perspective are applied to represent unusual points of view is called:foreshortening
In The Treachery of Images, Magritte tells us that painting is a:visual trick
A color that is lighter than its basic hue is called a:tint
By using this kind of color combination, artists avoid jarring, contrasting color and mood.analogous
Color mixtures using light, for example those in digital displays, are called __________ color mixtures.additive
Secondary colors can be created from a mixture of:two primary colors
Color deception occurs when:our perception of a color is influenced by the color next, or adjacent, to it
This is a kind of color “map” that allows an artist to assess quickly the attributes of colors as they relate to each other.color wheel
A color that is almost gray has a low chroma, or __________.saturation
Reflected light excites ________ that line the back of our eyes, and their signals are reprocessed and interpreted as color in our brains.nerve cells
This color with a cool temperature is often used to describe a depressed psychological state of
When Paul Gauguin painted his work The Yellow Christ he chose the color yellow for its __________ qualities.expressive
Moving images created with a zoetrope were early forms of:animation
Bioartist Suzanne Anker experiments with creating artificial environments (such as the conditions suitable for life in outer space) in which she grows plants. In Astroculture (Shelf Life), 2009, she found that the plants’ leaves turned:magenta
This type of art involves viewing actual motion and the artist’s body in the work.a chase scene
This object by French artist Marcel Duchamp is considered the first work of kinetic sculpture.a bicycle wheel mounted on a stool
Dorothea Lange took a series of photographs of a family in what kind of living quarters?a tent
This attribute of time is a measurement of the speed at which time elapses.tempo
Op art of the 1960s relied on a physiological effect that creates an illusion of motion. This effect is:the natural oscillations of the eye
In The Meeting of St. Anthony and St. Paul, by the workshop of the fifteenth-century artist known as the Master of Osservanza, there are five figures. These five figures are:St. Anthony (three times), a centaur, and St. Paul
The artist Jenny Holzer created an illusion of motion using a spiraling electronic message board to create a piece of art made up of:words
The symmetrical design of the building that we know as the Taj Mahal carries associations of:beauty and stability
When Tibetan Buddhist monks create a sand mandala, they are creating a composition that has this kind of balance:radial
An artist creates compositional unity by:organizing all of the visual elements of the work
The focal point of Robert Rauschenberg’s sculpture Monogram is:a stuffed goat
A work can still display unity, even if none of the visual elements has anything in common, if:the elements have conceptual unity
Artists face a communication challenge: to find a ________ within the chaos of nature and to select and organize materials into a harmonious composition.structure
An interior designer can balance curved and straight lines to __________ each other.complement
Katsushika Hokusai’s print “The Great Wave Off Shore at Kanagawa” uses compositional unity in which of these ways?Each answer shown is correct
A good example of variety in a work would be:different shapes and colors
In his work The Flagellation, Piero della Francesca communicates a mood of detachment and contemplation by using this principle of design.unity
Gestalt unity is a term that is derived from which language?German
This Greek sculptor wrote a treatise on how to create a statue of a human being with perfect proportions.Polykleitos
In ancient Egyptian art, the pharaoh was almost always depicted in this way:as the largest of all the figures
A work that is created in small scale can communicate:intimacy
Robert Lostutter creates his work with a particular scale in mind. That scale relates to these animals:birds
We perceive scale in relation to:our own size
Henry Peach Robinson created his photographic work Fading Away by using a Golden ________ for the format dimensions.section
Something done on a monumental scale usually indicates:Each answer shown is correct
Italian Renaissance painter Raphael’s The School of Athens depicts ________.a gathering of great scholars
When a Yoruba sculptor created a human form, he or she made this body part disproportionately large:head
This use of scale can create an abnormal or supernatural effect, and was used by the Surrealists to do just that.distorted scale
Placement of elements in a composition controls ________ and creates multiple focal points.rhythm
This is a specific place of visual emphasis in a work of art.focal point
Which of the following can be used to create emphasis?Each answer shown is correct
In Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, the viewer is directed away from Icarus plunging into the sea, through the use of:subordination
In Artemisia Gentileschi’s work Judith Decapitating Holofernes, the viewer is directed to the __________ that is indicated by directional lines.focal point
Ando Hiroshige created the work “Riverside Bamboo Market, Kyōbashi” in this medium:woodcut print
This kind of line tends to be more visually active, so it can draw the viewer’s attention.diagonal
When an artist wants to draw attention away from a particular part of a composition, he or she uses:subordination
The painting Starlight by Agnes Martin uses broad emphasis to draw attention to this part of the work:the composition as a whole
Of the twelve figures in Jacob Lawrence’s print from his series The Life of John Brown, this figure is emphasized the most:all of the figures are emphasized in different ways
Chuck Close’s Self Portrait of 1997 is made up of small units that are unrecognizable, or __________, when viewed closely.abstract
The artist Chuck Close used a repeated pattern of organic concentric rings set into a diamond shape to create his large:paintings
In Islamic art it is not uncommon to see complex interlaced __________, which are designs repeated as units in a pattern.motifs
When there are at least two points of reference in an artwork, __________ is present.rhythm
Why might an architect choose a simple, repetitive rhythm for his or her building?it suggests stability
Sometimes artists use this kind of changing pattern to make a work more lively.alternating pattern
In which sixteenth-century work does the Dutch artist Pieter Bruegel use rhythm to direct the viewer’s attention to different areas of the work?Hunters in the Snow
This is a way in which artists divide visual space into different kinds of sections to achieve different rhythmic effects.rhythmic design structure
In Francisco Goya’s print The Third of May, 1808, the Spanish citizens are arranged in a(n) ________ rhythm, whereas the French soldiers have ________ rhythm.irregular…regular
This principle of design arises from repetition of a pattern.rhythm
Polish artist Magdalena Abakanowicz spent much of her life with her home country under Communist rule by the Soviet Union. The regime emphasized the collective over the individual. This experience is reflected in her artworks in the following way:through the use of multiple, repeated figures
Iconographic analysis interprets objects and figures in an artwork as:signs or symbols
Pablo Picasso studied and copied Las Meninas because:he wanted to develop his own individual style
A group of artists might share a style – an identifiable kind of visual expression – because:Each answer shown is correct
Thomas Struth’s photograph Museo del Prado 7 is:a portrait of art appreciation
When researching an artwork, you might use primary and secondary sources of information. An example of a secondary source might be:a scholarly journal article
A formal analysis of Las Meninas by Diego de Silva y Velázquez would concentrate on this aspect of the work:what was in the foreground and background
Feminist analysis is a subset of ________ analysis.biographical
Some people argued that Robert Mapplethorpe should not have been awarded public funding, because:of his identity as a gay man and the sexual nature of his photographs
The tools of formal analysis help us to:understand how the artist applied the elements and principles to his or her artwork
Psychological analysis of The Scream by the artist Edvard Munch tells us that the painter was:expressing anxiety
Chalk, pastel, and crayon are created using pigment with a binder. Which of the following is a binder?Each answer shown is correct
Life drawing is the process of:drawing from a live model
When Raphael transferred his drawing of The School of Athens to the wall for painting, what substance did he force through perforations in the paper?charcoal dust
Which of these is not used to make the bristles for a brush with a bamboo shaft, for example those used by Asian artists?All of the answers shown are used
Which English artist and poet suggested that drawing is a fundamental artistic skill?William Blake
The German artist Käthe Kollwitz used charcoal to express ________ in her self-portrait of 1933, even though she rendered her face and hand in a static, realistic way.a sense of energy
Paper was invented by Cai Lun in China around the end of the ________century CE. He used macerated vegetable fibers suspended in water.first
Historically, when artists used silverpoint for a drawing they did so on wood that was covered with a thin coating of ________.bone ash
How did artist D. J. Hall use color pencil to achieve rich color and intense light effects in her work Piece of Cake?she pressed the pencil aggressively into the paper
Leonardo da Vinci engaged in which activity—banned by the Church—in order to get detailed drawings of the human anatomy?dissection
Robert Rauschenberg created a work titled Erased de Kooning Drawing by erasing a work by the Abstract Expressionist artist Willem de Kooning. How long did it take Rauschenberg to erase the whole drawing?nearly a month
Which material looks and writes like lead, was discovered in the mid-1500s, and became the medium for use in pencils?graphite
Why is egg tempera a challenging medium for artists to work with?it dries almost immediately
Which painter and watercolorist was the first woman to have her work shown at the Louvre during her lifetime?Sonia Delaunay
Images were painted using a saliva-and-pigment solution on cave walls at Pech Merle, France ________ years ago.25,000
Artemisia Gentileschi lived at a time when women were not easily accepted into the art profession, but she was supported by her ________, who was also an artist.father
Pigment names are often derived from their source. For example the pigment that we call umber is named after ________.the brown soil of Umbria, Italy
José Clemente Orozco, a Mexican muralist, worked in fresco. He wrote about the medium of painting, and called it “a ________ and nothing else.”poem
Such artists as Jan van Eyck took advantage of the transparency of oil paint glazes to attain a rich ________, as though their painting was lit from within.luminosity
Why would graffiti artist Banksy use stencils to transfer his artworks onto walls?speed of application is important to graffiti artists, who often risk arrest for defacing public property
The Roman-era encaustic portraits from Fayum are excellent examples of Roman painting in wax. What was Fayum?an oasis
Linseed oil came into general use as a painting binder in the fifteenth century, particularly in the following country:Flanders
The binder used to suspend pigment in acrylic paint is ________.polymer resin
Fresco painting was practiced in which of these locations?Each answer shown is correct
“And There Is No Remedy” was part of a horrifying print series created by Francisco Goya, titled ________.The Disasters of War
Collagraph printing is different to relief or intaglio methods, because:the artist builds up rather than cuts into the surface that is to be inked
Printing with inks was first practiced in which country in the third century CE?China
When creating a multi-color print, aligning the blocks or plates to ensure that the colors will appear in the correct location is called ________.registration
This material, derived from tree sap, is used in aquatint printmaking: a process that emulates the appearance of water-based media.rosin
Why do many contemporary printmakers prefer linocut to woodblock printing?because it is softer than wood and does not show the grain
Hokusai and Albrecht Dürer were printmakers who lived at different times and in different countries, but they had this in common:they both relied on skilled craftsmen to execute their print editions
Andy Warhol produced silkscreen prints depicting many celebrities, including a work titled Four ________.Marilyns
At one point in the lithography process, the artist must wipe the stone clean with which solvent to prepare for the inking?kerosene
Which German author devised the lithographic printing process because he wanted to use a cheaper printing method?Senefelder
The German artist Albrecht Dürer created Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse using which relief printmaking method?woodcut
Nearly all printmaking is done in editions, but some artists will opt to create unique prints. These are called:monotype prints and monoprints
Max Beckmann exploited the irregular character of drypoint for his print Adam and Eve because it matched the style of the ________ group with whom he was affiliated.Expressionist
A relief sculpture is one that is designed to be seen from one side. The two kinds of relief sculpture are: ________, which is deeply cut, and ________, which has little depth.high relief . . . bas-relief
The massive earthwork the Great Serpent Mound is made of mounds of earth that resemble a snake eating egg
The bronze sculpture Riace Warrior A was created as ________ representation of the human idealized
Antony Gormley’s Asian Field is a vast ________ artwork made up of small clay figures.installation
Which ruler of Renaissance Florence commissioned artist Giambologna to create a sculpture that symbolized the city’s strength?Francesco de’ Medici
Michelangelo used this Italian term, which refers to nudity, to describe the figures he intended to use for the tomb of Pope Julius II:ignudi
The Constructivist movement in art is associated with which historical European country?Soviet Union
Naum Gabo’s Constructed Head No. 2 investigates the sense of ________ and form implied by flat planes, in contrast to the solid mass of conventional
The practice of gathering objects and fabricating them into a work of art is called:assemblage
Even though it is a freestanding sculpture, Sculpture of the Lady Sennuwy was made to be displayed in what fashion?with its back to a pillar or wall
Sculpture that moves is called ________ sculpture.kinetic
Which of the following is not a method of carving?spooning
The Hawaiian sculpture of a war god (Figure 2.4.7) is a composition that represents how many different gods?two
Maya pyramids primarily served as platforms for ________.temples
A ________ is an architectural space that is created by using a series of columns, or a colonnade, to support a flat ceiling.hypostyle hall
Which type of arch, made up of stones that are progressively stepped inward, was used by the ancient Babylonians and Mycenaeans?corbeled arch
Classical architecture inspired Renaissance architects, and the style was also revived in the ________ century.mid-eighteenth
What issue(s) concern twenty-first-century architects?limited resources, energy conservation, and sustainability
The most impressive feature of the Church of Hagia Sophia is its enormous ________.dome
This material allowed for the construction of huge, glass-fronted skyscrapers.steel
Although radically different in appearance, Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater can both be described as ________ architecture.Modernist
Pointed arches conduct the downward thrust of the weight of the building by redirecting it outward toward the walls, and have a strong upward visual ________.emphasis
The main building in the Horyu Temple complex in Nara, Japan is the ________.Kondo
The magnificent Süleymaniye mosque in Istanbul, Turkey was designed by:Sinan
Which style of church architecture emulates the architectural style of the ancient Romans and uses rounded vaults and vaulted aisles in its plan?Romanesque
The lead architect of the Taj Mahal complex borrowed design elements from:Each answer shown is correct
Architects must consider the availability and cost of ________ when they plan their projects.building materials
Which African-American artist created the fiber artwork Tar Beach as an autobiographical work about her own experiences growing up in New York?Faith Ringgold
The metalworking process called repoussé, used to create the death mask from Mycenae, involves what kind of craftsmanship?hammering
Clay used to make earthenware has a good ________: it is pliable and can be easily formed into almost any orientation.plasticity
Processing plant fibers begins with separating the fiber from the plant, then preparing it for use by spinning the fiber into a long ________.thread
In Geoffrey Chaucer’s time, the makers of the fine objects we can see today in the world’s great art museums learned their trade in associations called ________.guilds
Exceptional large-scale stained-glass windows were featured in the construction of which Gothic cathedral in northern France?Chartres
When an artist is making pottery by hand-throwing, the first step when forming the clay on a potter’s wheel is to a mound of clay on the wheel
San Ildefonso pottery is created using:hand-building techniques
The Korean-American artist Hyo-In Kim created the work To Be Modern #2 to emulate a ________, a traditional Korean dress worn with shoes and a hairpin by women of the upper and royal classes.hanbok
South-African wood turner Andrew Early chooses to keep the natural irregularities of wood in his finished artworks, in order to preserve a sense of the material’s innate ________.personality
Which piece of sculpted Roman glass was named after one of its owners, Margaret Bentinck, an English duchess?Portland Vase
The artists Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris believed that society should reject rampant industrialization and restore ________.hand craftsmanship
The word “type” derives from the ________ meaning “to strike.”Greek
Though no original works of calligraphy by the ancient Chinese artist Wang Xizhi still exist, many students have been able to retrieve specimens of his writing style by:making rubbings from a stone tablet
The illustrator James Montgomery brought this character to life, and created a memorable icon, in his poster I Want You for U.S. Army:Uncle Sam
In web design, text that when clicked will immediately link to another web page is called ________.a hyperlink
Digital color displays are illuminated by three different colored light cells: red, green, and blue. These can result in:millions of color possibilities
The Bauhaus school in Germany was originally conceived as a school of ________ by its founder, Walter Gropius.architecture
When a typeface does not have any extra embellishments on the top and bottom of the letterforms, it is called a ________ font.sans serif
The designer and artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec created poster designs for which Parisian nightspot?Moulin Rouge
The logo that identifies the Ford Motor Company was created using Spencerian script by ________ named Harold engineer and executive
Commercial color printers use the following three primary colors, plus black:cyan, magenta, yellow
When light-sensitive film is exposed to light, ________ image is formed.a negative
Because the camera appears to capture an image of an event exactly as it occurred, viewers often believe that the resulting photograph is ________ record of events.a totally accurate
How did photographer Steve McCurry decide to mark the end of the production of Kodachrome film?by using the final roll to produce a series of portraits
Photographs have only recently been collected by fine art museums because for a long time they were considered by some not to be ________.true forms of art
The ________ was an early form of obscura
The earliest photographs were black and white because:Each answer shown is correct
Early photographer William Henry Fox Talbot discovered how to make positive prints that could be:easily reproduced
Color processes can be used to make photographs that are:Each answer shown is correct
Garry Winogrand’s practice of taking photographs that were not posed or set up in advance was known as:the snapshot aesthetic
Three important photographic genres are portraiture, landscape, and ________ (images of inanimate objects, such as fruit).still life
Unlike a photocollage, a photomontage is made to be ________.reproduced
The actor Andy Serkis played Gollum in the Lord of the Rings movies. His performance was a combination of traditional acting and ________.motion capture
Among artistic media, one that developed relatively recently is ________.moving imagery
Photographs by Eadweard Muybridge could be put into a ________ to create the impression that they were actually moving.spinning zoetrope
The earliest films did not feature ________.ongoing dialog
When online television streaming services, such as Netflix, choose to release all episodes of a series simultaneously, this gives viewers:more control over their viewing experience than with traditional television
Technology is used in contemporary video artworks, such as those made by Bill Viola and Nam June Paik, in ways that ______.relate to people using imagery and a medium they can readily understand
The sequences in Meshes of the Afternoon are similar to ______.dream imagery
One of the first moving subjects to be captured on camera was ________.a horse
Considering films to be works of art because they are the realization of a director’s creative vision is known as auteur theory, from the French word for “________.”author
The main difference between the animation used in The Cameraman’s Revenge and Spirited Away is that The Cameraman’s Revenge was made using ______.puppets
A musical tells a story using ______.dialog, dance, and songs
One important difference between The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and An Inconvenient Truth is that ______.An Inconvenient Truth is based on actual events
Both Fred Wilson’s Mining the Museum and Kara Walker’s Insurrection! (Our Tools Were Rudimentary, Yet We Pressed On) combine ________.historical occurrences and contemporary viewpoints
Performance art differs from theater because ________.the actions usually take place in an art context
What do Yoko Ono’s Wish Tree and Mel Chin’s Fundred Dollar Bill Project have in common?they rely on participants for their completion
When Marina Abramović performed The Artist is Present at MoMA in 2010, she did not speak or move, but created what she called a/an “________” with dialogue
Barbara Kruger’s Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face) makes the viewer consider which of the following issues?Each answer shown is correct
The kinds of artworks made using alternative media are ________.performance art, conceptual art, installations, and environments
Jean Tinguely’s Homage to New York, a mechanized assemblage of discarded junk, was influenced by:Marcel Duchamp’s readymades, the painting techniques of Jackson Pollock, and the rebellious performances of Dada artists
Installation artworks:Each answer shown is correct
An important difference between Coyote, I Like America and America Likes Me and Following Piece is that Following Piece took place ________.on the streets of New York
The traditional, and narrow, definition of “fine art” includes ________.paintings on canvas and sculptures on pedestals
The most important aspect of a piece of conceptual art is ________.the idea behind the artwork
This twentieth-century artist, and creator of Fountain (a factory-made urinal), was very influential for later artists working in alternative media.Marcel Duchamp