Abnormal Psychology Ch. 7, Abnormal Psychology Ch. 9, Abnormal Psychology Ch. 8

An important difference between mood disorders and normal mood fluctuation is…The severity and duration of the problem
What is the current incidence of severe unipolar depression in the United States?5-10%
In the united states, the prevalence of the unipolar depression in boys is…The same as it is for girls, but the prevalence for men is lower than it is for women
The experience of constant weeping would be considered a(n) _____ symptoms of depressionEmotional
A man diagnosed with major depressive disorder exhibited his first diagnosable symptoms when he was about 40 years old. Among those experiencing major depressive disorder, his case is…Very uncommon, most people with this diagnosis are women in their mid- to late 20s
A person displaying sadness, lack of energy, headaches, and feelings of low self-worth is not showing what symptom?Behavioral symptoms
A depressed person who is confused, unable to remember things, and unable to solve problems is suffering from ____ symptomsBehavioral
What is a physical symptom of depression?Sleeping poorly
What would be the most appropriate diagnosis for a person who experienced a major depressive episode, without having any history of mania, and is either immobile or excessively active>Catatonic depression
To receive a diagnosis of major depressive episode, catatonic, an individual must display…Motor immobility or lack of excessive activity
To receive a diagnosis of a major depressive episode, melancholic, an individual must display…Almost no emotional response to pleasurable events
To receive a diagnosis of dysthymic syndrome, an individual must have experienced symptoms for at least…2 years
Judith is currently experiencing a period of sadness that interferes with her ability to go to work and to take care of her children. it has lasted for three weeks, and she has experienced similar episodes in the past. What type of major depression would she most likely be diagnosed with?Persistent
A woman experiences recurrent thoughts of suicide, great sadness, and sleep disturbance. These symptoms began a week after she gave birth and have lasted more than six months. This woman is experiencing…Postpartum depression
A woman being treated for postpartum depression after the birth of her first child is most likely to…Have up to a 50% chance of experiencing postpartum depression with her next child
Jamal is experiencing major depressive episode that appears to have begun three weeks ago. He is miserable and suffers from at least five symptoms of depression. No unusually stressful events have occurred in the past year. Based on these data, the diagnosis would be…Endogenous Depression
Sohila has been deteriorating for more than a year. She is always tired (she does not sleep), she is losing weight (she eats poorly), she is sad, she feels terrible, and she feels like it will never get any better. When she responds to questions, it is clear that nothing in particular has happened. Based on the data, the diagnosis would most likely be…Endogenous Depression
Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for unipolar depression. These studies have found..A higher than chance rate of depression among the families of depressed patients
What are the chances that researchers will develop a specific, gene-based explanation for unipolar depression in the near future?Low– so far, specific genes on half or more of chromosomes have been linked to unipolar depression
There are several factors related to unipolar depression– reduced positive reinforcers, gene abnormalities, and life stress, to name a few. How do these factors relate to depression? The most recent research shows that…Some factors may cause depression, while other factors may maintain depression
If people with unipolar depression were found to have higher levels of cortisol, such a finding would support the influence of the…Biochemical orientation
Assume that a new study suggests the corpus callosum may cause unipolar depression by moving messages too slowly from one cerebral hemisphere to another. This study would be…Very unusual; previous studies have most strongly connected another brain area to depression
The belief that the prefrontal cortex has a very important part to play in the development of depression is probably…Correct, lower activity in the prefrontal cortex is associated with depression
Recent research indicated that all of the following brain structures or regions are part of the brain circuits involved in unipolar depression except…The corpus callosum
According to Freudian theory, depression results in part from…Regression to the oral stage
The clinician who would be most likely to say, “Tell me about any early losses you experienced ” is a…Psychodynamic clinician
Which theoretical model is supported by finding monkeys separated from their mothers at birth show signs of depression?Psychodynamic
Studies show that less than 10% of individuals who experience major losses become depressed. This finding provides what level of support for a psychodynamic explanation of depression?Almost none- about 10% of adults in the United States experience some level of clinical depression each year
Behaviorists explain the downward spiral of depression by theorizing thatDepressed behavior leads to even fewer opportunities for social rewards
Which theoretical orientation would support the finding that there is a significant relationship between positive life events and feelings of life satisfaction and happiness?Behavioral
A decrease in social rewards, especially a decrease in social support such as that is found in a happy marriage, may precede the onset of depression, providing evidence for which theoretical perspectives?Behavioral and sociocultural
Cognitive theorists explain depression in terms of a person’sNegative interpretation of events
The individual associated with developing a cognitive theory of depression based on negative and maladaptive thinking was…Beck
The dean of academic affairs visit a professor’s class as part of a tenure review. At the conclusion of the lecture, the dean exists hurriedly, without saying a word to the professor. The professor, who is prone to depression, concludes, “The dean hated my class so much he was too embarrassed to speak with me”. This is an example of a..Arbitrary inference
Which research finding provides the most direct support for Beck’s cognitive theory of depressionDepressed women make even more errors in logic when interpreting a paragraph than do nondepressed women
If I’m in a depressed mood and all I do is think about my mood without trying to change it, I’m making what kind of response?Ruminative
What are the two most influential cognitive explanations for unipolar depression?Theory of negative thinking and the theory of learned helplessness
There person associated with the learned helplessness theory of depression is…Seligman
According to Martin Seligman’s theory, who would be most likely to develop learned helplessness?Someone who had experienced uncontrollable negative events and then a controllable negative event
Many victims of spousal abuse stay with their abusers, even though it is obvious to others that they should, and actually could, leave. A good explanation for their behavior is…Learned helplessness
Darius thinks that his poor performance in math was due to a bad teacher. He also believes that he is good in language-based subjects, Darius is sure that he will do better in math next year. This is an example of…External, specific, and unstable attrition
The clinician who would be most likely to ask “Do you believe you will always feel like this in all situations?” is a …Cognitive Clinician
One who looks at the influence of race, living conditions, marital status, and roles on the development of depression would most likely represent which theoretical orientation?Sociocultural
In the United States, the highest depression rate is found in..Divorced people
What statement is not generally accurate regarding gender and depression?Men respond less successfully to therapy for depression
Depression is more common in women because they experience more taxing life situations, such as poverty and menial jobs than men. This is the…Life stress theory
Artifact theory differs importantly from other sociocultural theories of depression because it suggests…Women and men are equally likely to develop depression
The DSM-5 has added premenstrual dysphoric disorder as a diagnosis given to certain women who repeatedly experience a clinically significant depressive and related symptoms during the week before menstruation. Why has this been an ongoing controversy?The diagnosis pathologizes severe cases of premenstrual syndrom
What theoretical orientation would support the finding that Westerners experience more psychological symptoms of depression than do others around the world?Sociocultural
Which of these people is most likely to be diagnosed with depression?A woman from the United States who has lived all of her life on an American Indian reservation
Which is an accurate description of the symptoms of mania?They don’t include a sense of the impact of one’s actions on others
People who talk rapidly, dress flambouyantly, and get involved in dangerous activities are showing ____ symptoms of maina.Behavioral
According to the DSM-5, all of the following are considered symptoms of a manic episode EXCEPTSuicidal ideation
On an impulse, David decides to throw a huge party. It takes four days of round-the-clock work to get everything ready, and then David welcomes more than 200 guests. When the police stop by because David has blocked a public road to have room for the party, he flies into a rage. Most likely, David is experiencing…Manic phase of bipolar 1 disorder
The difference between bipolar 1 disorder and bipolar 2 disorder is…The severity of the manic episodes
A friend of yours wishes to be a highly creative artist. What is the best advice you could give your friend regarding mood disorders?“Mild mood disorders are related to greater activity than severe disorders”
Assume you have a friend who is a talented artist and has occasional short-term hypomania. What is the best thing, in terms of being a creative, productive artist, that your friend could do?Do nothing: sometimes, hypomania increases artistic creativity and produtivity
A milder pattern of mood swings that does not reach the severity of bipolar disorder but does inclue brief depressive and manic episodes is called ______ disorderCyclothymic
Biochemical explanations for bipolar disorder focus on all of the following except…Hormonal functioning
Abnormal “ion activity” has been fond in many people suffering from bipolar disorder. This ion activity is responsible for transmitting messagesDown the length of a neuron
The strongest evidence for the cause of bipolar disorders BEST supports which theoretical perspective?Biological
Which risk percentage pattern BEST supports the influence of genetic factors in explaining bipolar disorder —(1) in the general population , (2) among close relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and (3) among identical twins of people with bipolar disorder?1%
If we ultimately find that people with unipolar depression have certain biochemical characteristics, certain cognitive characteristics, and certain life stressors then we will have evidence that…An interaction between factors causes depression
About how many deaths occur by suicide each year around the world?1,000,000
Compared to heart disease and cancer, suicide accounts for ____ in the United States<10% of deaths
Why do many people think that estimates of the rates of suicide are inaccurate?Less than one-tenth of the deaths
In his definition of suicide, Edwin Schneidman includes all factors EXCEPT that it…Results from depression or emotional distress
According to Schneidman, the critical way in which the death seeker differs from the death darer is..Death seekers intend to end their lives with their action
Cecil and Jeanne, teenagers, made a love pact, jumping from a cliff to be with each other for eternity. Cecil and Jeanne are examples of what Edwin Schneidman refers to as…Death ignorers
Ernest Hemingway was a physically strong, proud man who developed great concerns about his failing body. Depressed about his progressive illness, he intentionally ended his life. Edwin Schneidman would term Hemingway a…Death Initiator
According to Schneidman, how do death ignorers primarily differ from other categories?They believe death will not end their exsistance
Knowing she was terminally ill, Bonnie swallowed a handful or barbiturate save herself and her family from the final painful months of life. Bonnie is an example of what Edwin Schneidman refers to as a..Death initiator
A teenager’s hands and arms are covered with self-inflicted burns, and the teenager almost seems addicted to this destructive behavior. The self-inflicted burns would most likely be classified as…Self-Injury, a variety of Edwin Scheidman’s “subinentional death” classification
Retrospective analysis of suicide typically would include…Interviews with people who knew the person who committed suicide
What is the best example of retrospective analysis?Therapists who had patients who committed suicide are interviewed to gain information on suicide
One of the factors that is believed to account for differences in the suicide rates of different countries is…Religious affiliation and beliefs
What statement about the relationship between religion and suicide is accurate?The degree of one’s devoutness is a more important predictor of suicide than one’s specific religion
What statement is not true regarding gender and suicide?Women succeed at committing suicide more often than do men
What would be the most surprising example of suicide because it does not fit into the pattern that current research results have identified?A woman who stabbed then hanged herself
According to current estimates, the suicide rate is highest in the United States among….American Indians
Assume that a community is made up of almost exactly equal numbers of these four groups: African American, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans< and white Americans, and that everyone is of the same socioeconomic status. Approximately what percent of suicides would you expect to be committed by white Americans?40%- about double the rates for the other groups
How likely are women to use a gun to commit suicide?About 30% of women who commit suicide use guns
Commonly observed triggers for suicide include all except…Being in therapy
What is a long-term stressor particularly common among those who attempt suicide?Divorce
Which occupation has a particularly high rate of suicide?Psychologists
The mood and thoughts of suicidal people are most often characterized asSad and hopelessness
An increase in what emotion is most often linked to suicide?Sadness
A friend of yours wants certain heavy metal songs banned because, your friend says, listening to them will encourage suicidal tendencies. Your best reply, based on research would be…“It probably won’t work; experts don’t agree with you, and the courts have not found musicians liable”
The current rating system for CD and music download lyrics was instituted…In part to address people’s concerns about links between listening to music and suicide attempts
A person who sees life in “right or wrong”, “all or none” terms is engaging in..Dichotomous thinking
Of people who use alcohol just before committing suicide, what percentage are actually intoxicated?25%
Which is mot likely reason for the relationship between alcohol use and suicide?Alcohol lowers inhibitions and impairs judgement
A friends asks, “Why is there such a strong connection between alcohol abuse and suicide risk?” Based on the best available research, you reply:“No one knows for sure”
It is common that the majority of people who commit suicidal acts also have another psychological disorder. Which would be the most common disorder associated with suicidal attempts?Mood disorders
Assume that a recent local suicide attempt was clearly a case of modeling. The person who would most likely model another’s suicide would be an:Teenager
What is the beat example of the social contagion effect…If you had a close relative or friend who committed suicide, your risk of committing suicide is greater
As a political protest, two activities leap from a bridge in a highly publicized double suicide. Those most at risk for modeling these suicides are…People with a history of emotional problems
Suicides that are carried out in bizarre ways for political reasons are most likely to trigger..Those with emotional problems to commit suicide in the same manner
The leading theories designed to explain suicide…Are not supported by a significant body of research
Research supporting a Freudian view of suicide has shown that later suicidal behavior is related to…Both real and symbolic losses of childhood
If the psychodynamic explanation for suicide is correct, then suicide rates should…Be lower in those who experienced symbolic loss as children
Emile Durkheim’s theory of suicide fits to the…Sociocultural model
A society that loses its basic family and religious core values, experiences large-scale immigration of people with very different value, and fails to provide meaning for the life of its people is in danger of an increase in what Durkheim callsAnomic suicide
Juan is an atheist, does what he wants, and is alienated from others. He feels life isn’t worth living and kills himself. According to Durkheim, he would be classified as an…Egoistic Suicide
Carols died by intentionally stepping in from of a bullet intended for another young man, for whom Carlos, as head of platoon of soldier in the Persian gulf war, was responsible. Emile Durkheim would call this an example of…Altruistic Suicide
A young man whose father and uncle committed suicide at about his age also commits suicide. What explanation of suicide most easily explains the young man’s suicide?Biological
The strongest direct support for a biological explanation for suicide comes from…Studies of neurotransmitter levels
In research on the relationship between serotonin and suicide, serotonin seems most related to…Aggression
Which statement best reflects the relationship between serotonin and suicide?Low levels of serotonin are related to high levels of aggression and impulsivity
The age group least likely to commit suicide in the United States is…Children
The “typical” child who commits suicide is a…Boy who understands what death really is
In what way do adolescent studies not differ from suicides at other age levels?Many experience significant loss before the suicide
Teenagers are different from people who are older than they are who commit suicide because teenagers are…More impulsive and have poorer problem solving skills
Among teenagers who commit suicide..Less than 1% succeed the first time, and about half will try again
What best supports the idea that teenagers who attempt suicide are more uncertain about killing themselves than elderly people are…Teenagers succeed at suicide only in about 1 in 200 attempts
What statement is true?
1. More teenagers than people in any other age group commit suicide
2. Suicide is the leading cause of death among teenagers
3. African American teenage boys commit suicide at a higher rate than European American boys
4. More teenagers attempt suicide than actually kill themselves
Research prompted by the “black box” controversy about using second-generation antidepressants with younger patients shows that taking second-generation antidepressants…Decreases younger patient suicide rates overall, although some individuals are more likely to commit suicide
The percentage of successful suicide attempts among the elderly is about…50 times as high as the percentage of successful suicide attempts among adolescents
For teenagers, the highest suicide rates are found among..White Americans and American Indians
The age group most likely to commit suicide in the US is…The elderly
A couple has been married for almost 50 years, and then one of them dies. The probability that the surviving spouse will commit suicide…Is much higher than normal
Which factor does not contribute to the high suicide rate among the elderly?Geographical location
In 1997, Oregon passed the “Death with Dignity Act” which allows doctor-assisted suicide for persons with terminal illness. Since 1997, on average, how many Oregonians with terminal illness have ended their lives each year?About 500
“What works best to keep suicidal people from following through?” asks a friend. Which would be the correct answer to this question?Try cognitive behavioral therapy
Suicide prevention programsOffer crisis interventions
When answering the telephone of a suicide hotline, the first step is for the counselor toEstablish a positive relationship
At a suicide prevention center, you hear a counselor say, “will you promise me that you will call again if you ever feel like killing yourself again?” Which one of the goals and techniques of suicide prevention does this question best represent?Formulating a plan
Reports indicate that if someone is a member of an “online community” and threatens to commit suicide online, the other members of the community will:Respond in many different ways, including urging the person to commit suicide and contacting 911 services
What statement about the successes of suicide prevention programs is accurate?Of those who call, fewer commit suicide than those who don’t call who are in a similar risk group
Suicide education programs typically focus on…Students and teachers
The most well-developed understanding of the causes of suicide come from the…Sociocultural model
A therapist using free association and dream interpretation discovers that as a small child her patient had been left alone by her mother on several occasions and concludes that the patient is experiencing unipolar depression. The therapist is most likely from which orientation?Psychodynamic
Which statement about psychodynamic theory in treating unipolar depression is accurate?Long-term therapy is only occasionally helpful to those with unipolar depression
What do psychodynamic therapists believe is the cause of unipolar depression?Unconscious grieving over real or imagined loss
Free association, interpretation of associations, and dream interpretation are all techniques used primarily by…Psychodynamic therapists
If your therapist tried to reintroduce you to pleasurable activities, reinforce non depressive actions, and improve your social skills, your therapist would be using..Behavioral Therapy
Behavioral therapy for the treatment of unipolar depression may include…Reinforcing nondepressed behavior
What is the best example of the therapy technique known as behavioral activation?Adding positive activities to the patients life
A therapist turns on a buzzer when a client speaks slowly and laboriously. She turns it off when the client speaks more rapidly. In other cases, the therapist instructs the client’s spouse to ignore his mat when she complains or acts in a self-deprecating manner. This is an example of…Behavioral therapy
Focusing on the addition of positive activities of the life of a patient with depression is a behavioral technique known as..Behavioral activation
Jose is depressed. His therapist told him that reading a book each month would help. He should also visit friends, go bowling, do the laundry, mow the lawn, and ear meals with his wife. In short, he should increase his positive activity. His therapist most likely reflects the ____ orientation.Behavioral
The contingency management approach is an example of the application of ___ to the treatment of depressonReinforcement
What kind of unipolar depression is behavioral treatment most effective in treating?Mild depression
What is the correct match of person and approach?Beck and cognitive therapy
Which statement is true about the research in the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in treating unipolar depression?It nearly eliminates depressive symptoms in 50 to 60 % of the cases
A person experiencing unipolar depression writes in an activity schedule, “Go to store; doctor’s appointment; visit museum; read novel; clean room” What treatment approach is this person most likely receiving?Cognitive therapy
An individual with depression who is receiving therapy is told that many, even most of the negative thoughts that an individual experiences and records have no basis in fact. Most likely, the therapist is…Challenging automatic thoughts
What would a cognitive therapist be least likely to say to you?Try to evaluate what happens to you in “black and white” terms
Clients who test their assumptions about what is causing their depression are working in which phase of Beck’s treatment program?Changing primary attitudes
What statement is most consistent with the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression?Accepting the negative thoughts and working with them is preferably to rejecting them entirely
Which is not a goal of the cultural-sensitive therapy movement?Therapy for minority clients delivered exclusively by minority therapists
Which is the best example of interpersonal role transition?Going away to college for the first time
If your therapist encouraged you to explore your roles in life and how they might be changing or how your expectations might be different from someone else’s, you therapist would be using…Interpersonal therapy
A person who displays extreme shyness and insensitivity to others is showing signs of…Interpersonal deficits
Tony just does not feel close to anyone. He feels alone because although he can get to know someone (a woman) quite well on a friendship level, he doesn’t know how to get beyond that to a more intimate level. This is depressing him. This is an example of what interpersonal psychotherapists refer to as an…Interpersonal deficit
According to research studies, the success rate for interpersonal therapy is about the same as that for…Cognitive therapy
If the focus of your therapist is primarily on how communication and problem-solving difficulties with your partner are contributing to your depression, your therapist is using…Couple therapy
When is couple therapy preferable to individual therapy?When relationship conflicts and role transitions are paramount
What is the average length of time for the treatment of major depressive disorder using ECT?2-4 weeks
In the bilateral ECT, the electrical current passes through…Both sides of the brain