Chapter 6- Learning (SLO)

Colin was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant. These experiences made him fearful of the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin’s fear.unconditioned stimulus
On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace’s surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.Variable- Interval
Evidence that organisms most readily learn behaviors favored by natural selection best illustrates the importance ofbiological constraints
Psychologists define learning as the process ofacquiring, through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
Giving a hungry rat food for pressing a bar before the rat has a chance to engage in other incidental behaviors like running or scratching best illustratesimmediate reinforcement
A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.shaping
A learned association between behavior and a resulting event is central tooperant conditioning
Rats most easily learn to associate ________ with becoming sick.novel tastes
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)Neutral Stimulus
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the occurrence ofan unconditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, a stimulus is any event or situation thatEvokes a response
Male Japanese quail became excited by a red light that was turned on each time just before a sexually approachable female quail was presented. The sexual arousal triggered by the red light was aCR
Comedian-writer Mark Malcoff reported that his fear of flying faded after he faced his fear and lived on an airplane for 30 days. His reduced fear best illustrated the process ofExtinction
Four-year-old Chella asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first, her mother gave in to every request, but now she does so only once in a while. Research suggests that Chella willContinue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store
Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.operant conditioning
Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. Consequently, she puts little effort into her job, even though she really wants a big raise. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the operant conditioning of work habits.Cognitive Processes
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.reinforcement; punishment
A psychologist who emphasizes cognitive processes would be likely to suggest that classical conditioning depends onan organisms expectation that a US will follow a CS
A type of learning in which behavior is diminished if followed by a punisher is calledoperant conditioning
Helpful and constructive actions best illustrateprosocial behavior
learningthe process of acquiring, through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
associative learninglearning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
stimulusany event or situation that evokes a response
cognitive learningthe acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.
classical conditioninga type of learning in which we learn to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
Neutral Stimulus (NS)in classical conditioning, a stimulus that evokes no response before conditioning
unconditioned response (UR)in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth).
unconditioned stimulus (US)in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response (UR).
conditioned response (CR)in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus (CS)in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CS)
acquisitionin classical conditioning, the initial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response (In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.)
extinctionin classical conditioning, the weakening of a conditioned response when am unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus. (In operant conditioning, the weakening of a response when it is no longer reinforced.)
spontanious recoverythe reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
generalizationin classical conditioning, the tendency, after conditioning to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus.
discriminationin classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli.
respondent behaviorbehavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant conditioninga type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
operant behaviorbehavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
law of effectThorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
operant chamberin operant conditioning research, a chamber, (also known as a skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
reinforcementin operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
shapingan operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide actions closer and closer toward a desired behavior.
positive reinforcementincreases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is anything that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
negative reinforcementincreases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is anything that when removed after a response, strengthens the response (Note: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT PUNISHMENT)
primary reinforceran event that is innately reinforcing, often by satisfying a biological need.
conditioned reinforcer(also known as secondary reinforcer) an event that gains its reinforcer power through its link with a primary reinforcer.
continuous reinforcementreinforcing a desired response every time is occurs
reinforcement schedulea pattern that defines how often a desired response will be inforced.
partial (intermittent) reinforcementreinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
fixed ratio-schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed-interval schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
punishmentan event that decreases the behavior it follows.
biological constraintsevolved biological tendencies that predispose animals’ behavior and learning. Thus, certain behaviors are more easily learned by some animals than others.
behaviorismthe view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most psychologists today agree with (1), but not (2)
cognitive mapa mental image of the layout of one’s enviornment
latent learninglearning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
intrinsic motivationa desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake.
extrinsic motivationa desire to perform a behavior to gain a reward or avoid punishment
observational learninglearning by observing others
modelingthe process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
mirror neuronneuron that fires when we preform certain actions and when we observe others performing those actions; neural basis for imitation and observational learning.
prosocial behaviorpositive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan. Workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company’s profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms ofoperant conditioning
A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)conditioned stimulus
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process ofgeneralization
Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased aggression.predicts
It’s easier to teach a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.biological constraints
Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joel’s mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys’ behavior?observational learning
Our ability to learn by watching the behavior of others best illustratesobservational learning
Dogs conditioned to salivate when their thigh is stimulated also begin to salivate when other body parts are stimulated. This best illustratesgeneralization
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)specified number of responses
Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul’s telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael’s is reinforced on a ________ schedule.fixed ratio; variable ratio
It has been suggested that ________ are activated when a monkey moves a peanut into its own mouth and when a monkey simply observes other monkeys move a peanut into their mouths.mirror-neurons
The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies oflatent learning
Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a(n)stimulus
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions ofcontinuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement
The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of money as ________ is to ________.primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. This principle is calledlaw of effect
Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects ofpunishment
Giving a hungry rat food for pressing a bar before the rat has a chance to engage in other incidental behaviors like running or scratching best illustratesimmediate reinforcement
John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov would have disapproved of attempts to scientifically study whetheracademic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept
If rats are allowed to wander through a maze, they will later run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrateslatent learning