5.1-5.2 Study Guide: Cell Cycle | Mitosis & Cytokinesis

Cell Cyclethe regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in EUKARYOTIC cells
G11st Stage of Cell Cycle: Cells grow, Carries out normal functions, and replicate their organelles
G23rd Stage of Cell Cycle: Additional growth, Has to go through critical checkpoint
Synthesis2nd Stage of Cell Cycle: Makes copy of DNA
Mitosis4th Stage of Cell Cycle: Division of cell nucleus and its contents
CytokinesisLast Stage of Cell Cycle: Division of cytoplasm
Growth and DivisionTo maintain a suitable cell size, _______ & __________ must be coordinated.
ChromosomeOne long continuous THREAD OF DNA that consists of numerous genes
HistonesProteins that DNA is tightly-coiled around
ChromatidOne half of a duplicated chromosome
CentromereRegion of condensed chromosome that looks pinched, sister chromatids are held together here (Centro= CENTER)
TelomereStructures at the end of DNA molecules, prevents ends of chromosomes from accidentally attatching to each other
Prophase1st Phase of MITOSIS: DNA and proteins CONDENSE into tightly coiled chromosomes, nuclear envelope BREAKS DOWN, CENTRIOLES begin to move to opposite poles, SPINDLE fibers form
Metaphase2nd Phase of MITOSIS: Spindle fibers ATTACH to protein structure, ALIGN chromosomes along cell equator
Anaphase3rd Phase of MITOSIS: Sister chromatids SEPARATE from each other, SPINDLE fibers SHORTEN, pulls SISTER CHROMATIDS to opposite sides
Telophase4th Phase of MITOSIS: Complete set of IDENTICAL chromosomes position at each pole of cell, NUCLEAR MEMBRANE begins to form, CHROMOSOMES UNCOIL, spindle fibers FALL APART