APUSH Chapter 39 (2)

VietnamizationNixon’s policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time. It also included a gradual take over of the South Vietnamese taking responsibility of fighting their own war by American-provided money, weapons, training, and advice.
Nixon DoctrineA doctrine that stated that the United States would stay true to all of their existing defense commitments but Asian and other countries would not be able to rely on large bodies of American troops for support in the future.
My LaiA Japanese village that housed 300-500 elderly, women, and children. 28 American soldiers shot the elderly, raped the women and children, and threw the remains in ditches. Soldiers had severe paranoia when they could not identify Viet Cong.
26th AmendmentAn amendment that lowered voting age to 18 and was passed in 1971.
Pentagon PapersArticles by The New York Times about a top-secret study of America’s involvement in the Vietnam War. The information was “leaked” to the newspaper by the former Pentagon official Daniel Ellsberg.
Dr. Henry KissingerNixon’s national security adviser who was a German that fled Hitler’s persecution. Med secretly with North Vietnamese officials in Paris representing Nixon. The meetings negotiated ending the war in Vietnam and preparing the way for the president come to Beijing and Moscow.
DetenteA period of relaxed tensions with the Communist power of the Soviets where agreements were made to support the Soviets by selling them $750 million in wheat, corn, and other cereals.
AMB treaty/ SALT IAnti-ballistic missile treaty which set the limit of two clusters of defensive missiles per nation. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks stopped the numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for 5 years.
Griswold v. ConnecticutA court that turned down the state law that prohibited thee of contraceptives(single and married) due to a proclaimed “right of privacy.”
Gideon v. WainwrightThe court reestablished that all defendants in serious criminal cases were entitled to legal counsel whether or not they can afford it or not.
Escobedo & Miranda casesTwo cases in 1964 and 1966 that reestablished the right of an accused person to remain silent and have other protections when accused a crime.
Engel v. VitaleAlong with School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, they voted against the requirement of prayers and Bible readings in the public schools.
Reynolds v. SimsRuled that both the upper and the lower houses of the state legislatures would have to be reapportioned to the human population.
Roe v. WadeA court decision in 1973 that legalized abortion.
Philadelphia planNixon’s plan that required construction-trade unions working with federal contracts in Philadelphia which would establish “goals and timetables” for hiring black apprentices.
CREEPThe Republican Committee for the Re-election of the which raised tens of millions of dollars in secretive, unethical, or unlawful ways. “Dirty tricks” were a party of the campaign which included espionage, sabotage, and fake documents against Democratic candidates in 1972.
Gerald FordA twelve-term congressman that replaced the Vice President Agnew after he was forced to resign in October 1973 for taking bribes and “kickbacks” as he was a governor and as he was vice president.
Saturday Night MassacreOccurred 10 days after Agnew’s resignation. The firing of Archibald Cox, a “special prosecutor”, along with the resignation of the attorney general and the deputy attorney general who refuse to fire Cox. Nixon wanted him fired because Cox ordered a subpoena for relevant tapes and other documents from the white house.
War Powers ActAn act that passed after Nixon’s veto which required the president to report to Congress within 48 hours after sending or promising troops to a foreign conflict.
Six Day War of 1967A war of Syrians and Egyptians v. Israelis which began with a surprise attack on Israel. Caused a domino effect which involved the US sending $2 billion in war materials and thee Soviets arming their attackers.
Helsinki accordsA set of several sets of agreements between President Ford and 34 other nations that was signed in Finland. An official end to WWII with the boundaries of Poland and other Eastern European countries were set. This convinced the Soviets to sign agreements of liberal exchanges of people and information between the East and West. Also agreed to protect certain basic “human rights.”
Title IXA part of the Education Amendments which prohibited sex discrimination in any educational programs or activities that are funded by the federal government.
Equal Rights AmendmentAmendment that declared “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”
The Regents of the University of California v. BakkeDeclared that admissions into a college could not be influenced by a minority or majority on the basis of only ethnic or racial identity.
Jimmy CarterA peanut farmer from Georgia that was the presidential candidate for the Democratic party in 1976 who escaped with a narrow victory. Against the American tax system and proposed tax reform and reduction.
Chief Justice Earl Warrenunder whom the Supreme Court had made a noticeable shift to the left (liberal side) and was activist
Warren E. Burgerquickly nominated, accepted, and became chief justice. Nixon appointed a total of four supposedly conservative justices
Rachel Carsongodmother of the modern environmental movement. She wrote Silent Spring (1962) about the ill-effects of the pesticide DDT.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)formed in 1970 along with the Occupational Health and Safety Admin. (OSHA) to set safety standards in workplaces.
Clean Air Actpassed in 1970 by Nixon
Endangered Species Actpassed in 1973 by Nixon
George McGovernDemocrats nominated in the 1972 election
promised to end the war in 90 days.
supported by young adults and women
Thomas EagletonMcGovern’s V.P. candidate
Pol Pottyrant in Cambodia who killed some 2 million of his own people
Milliken v. Bradleythe Supreme Court ruled that, while integrating schools, officials could not force students across district lines.
Bakke case(1978), the Supreme Court dealt with reverse discrimination
Thurgood Marshallonly black justice
Dept. of Energypassed by Carter
Leonid BrezhnevSoviet leader
agreed to limit nuclear weapons.
WatergateNixon during his campaign in 72 had 5 guys try to plant bugs in the watergate complex, the democrats head quarters
this led to Nixon’s resignation when the story came out